Showing posts with label SCIENCE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SCIENCE. Show all posts

Saturday, March 28, 2015

General Science Practice Questions

1. Which of the following vitamins is helpful for coagulation of blood  ?
(A) C (B) D (C) E (D) K
Ans : (D)

2. For purifying drinking water, alum is used–
(A) for coagulation of mud particles (B) to kill bacteria
(C) to remove salts (D) to remove gases
Ans : (A)

3. A weather balloon is not fully inflated on the ground because– 
(A) if the balloon is fully inflated, it may not remain stable in a storm
(B) the air inside the balloon expands as it rises and may burst
(C) it cannot withstand the outside pressure if fully inflated
(D) None of these
Ans : (B)

4. Vitamin B12 is most useful for combating–
(A) anaemia (B) goitre
(C) night blindness (D) rickets
Ans : (A)

5. A transistor is most likely to be found in a–
(A) fuse (B) fluorescent lamp
(C) hearing aid (D) wrist watch
Ans : (C)

6. A person born with the inner ear missing–
(A) would not have the Eustachian tube
(B) would never be able to hear sound 
(C) would be able to hear only with an electronic hearing aid 
(D) could only hear a loud explosion
Ans : (B)
7. The possibility of hereditary variation is greatest when– 
(A) self-fertilisation occurs, as in some plants
(B) an abundant amount of food is provided for the egg
(C) organisms reproduce sexually
(D) organisms reproduce asexually
Ans : (C)

8. Steel is more elastic then rubber because– 
(A) its density is high (B) it is a metal
(C) ratio of stress to strain is more (D) ratio of stress to strain is less 
Ans : (C)

9. The chief purpose if crop rotation is to check the loss of topsoil–
(A) by water erosion (B) by wind erosion
(C) by weathering (D) pf its mineral content
Ans : (D)

10. Which of the following acts as a resistance against disease in the body ?
(A) Carbohydrates (B) Red corpuscles
(C) Vitamins (D) White corpuscles
Ans : (D)

11. What is function of a dynamo ?
(A) To convert heat energy into light energy
(B) To convert light energy into heat energy
(C) To convert mechanical energy into electrical energy 
(D) To convert electrical energy into mechanical energy
Ans : (C)

12. The chief constituent of Gobar Gas is–
(A) ethane (B) methane
(C) hydrogen (D) carbon dioxide
Ans : (B)

13. Who is credited with the development of polio vaccine ?
(A) Linus Pauling
(B) Jonas Salk
(C) Melvin Calvin
(D) Selman Waksman
Ans : (B)

14. Which one of the following statements regarding sound is true ?
(A) It travels at its greatest speed in vacuum.
(B) It produces transverse vibrations in the medium in which it travels.
(C) Its source is always a vibrating material.
(D) It cannot travel through liquids.
Ans : (C)

15. The clear sky looks blue because of–
(A) reflection of light (B) refraction of light
(C) diffraction of light (D) dispersion of light
Ans : (D)

16. Which of the following in the human body is popularly called the ‘Adam’s Apple’?
(A) Adrenal (B) Liver
(C) Thyroid (D) Thymus
Ans : (C)

17. Which one of the following substances is obtained by the fractionation of human blood ?
(A) Antivenom serum (B) Gamma globulin
(C) Polio vaccine (D) Diphtheria antitoxin
Ans : (B)

18. Of the blood groups A, B, AB and O, which one is transfused into a person whose blood group is A ?
(A)  Group A only (B)  Group B only
(C)  Group A and O (D)  Group AB only
Ans : (C)

19. The three abundant elements in the earth’s crust are aluminium, oxygen and silicon. The correct order of their abundance is– 
(A) oxygen, aluminium, silicon (B) aluminium, silicon, oxygen
(C) oxygen, silicon, aluminium (D) silicon, oxygen, aluminium
Ans : (D)

20. Penicillin is widely used as–
(A) an antiseptic (B) a disinfectant
(C) an antibiotic (D) an insecticide
Ans : (C)

General Science Practice Questions

1. An eye defect which usually results from an unequal curvature of the cornea is–
(A) nearsightedness (B) astigmatism
(C) colour blindness (D) night blindness
Ans : (B)

2. The velocity of sound in air (under normal conditions) is–
(A) 30 m / sec (B) 320 m / sec
(C) 332 m / sec (D) 3,320 m / sec
Ans : (C)

3. A photo-electric cell converts–
(A) sound energy into electrical energy (B) light energy into electrical energy
(C) an electrical signal into sound waves (D) electrical energy into light energy
Ans : (B)

4. Which of the following sounds cannot be heard by human ear?
(A) 300 vibrations / sec (B) 1,000 vibrations / sec
(C) 10,000 vibrations / sec (D) 30,000 vibrations / sec
Ans : (D)

5. Exposure to sunlight helps a person improve his health because–
(A) the infra-red light kills bacteria in the body     
(B) resistance power increases
(C) the pigment cells in the skin get stimulated and produce a healthy tan
(D) the ultraviolet rays convert skin oil into Vitamin D
Ans : (D)

6. Small amounts of iodine are necessary in our diet to– 
(A) prevent pellagra
(B) compensate for underactivity of the thyroid gland
(C) stimulate clotting of blood
(D) stimulate pituitary gland
Ans : (B)

7. On a sudden cardiac arrest, which of the following is advised as a first step to revive the functioning of human heart ?
(A) Mouth to mouth resuscitation (B) Giving external cardiac massage
(C) Sprinkling water on the face (D) Giving cool water to drink
Ans : (A)

8. A triode differs from a diode in the way that– 
(A) it can amplify a signal (B) it has vacuum inside
(C) it has a heated cathode (D) its current is caused by the photoelectric effect
Ans : (A)

9. Radioactive substances can be produces readily in–
(A) an electron gun (B) an atomic pile
(C) a transistor (D) a Wilson cloud chamber
Ans : (B)

10. The method of estimating the age of the crust of the earth, which is now believed to be the most accurate, makes use of the rate of–
(A) accumulation of sedimentary beds  (B) accumulation of salt in the ocean
(C) atomic disintegration (radio-activity) (D) loss of heat by the earth
Ans : (C)

11. When a given amount of air is cooled–
(A) the amount of moisture it can hold decreases (B) its absolute humidity decreases 
(C) its relative humidity remains constant  (D) its absolute humidity increases
Ans : (A)

12. With the present-day advancement in medical techniques, transplants are possible in all of the following except–
(A) artery (B) bone
(C) cornea (D) kidney
Ans : (B)

13. The reaction which converts sugar solution into alcohol is a example of–
(A) saponification (B) hydrogenation
(C) fermentation (D) hydrolysis
Ans : (C)

14. The Rh factor refers to– 
(A) a protein substance found in the blood of some people
(B) a hormone carried by the blood
(C) the ratio of red corpuscles to white corpuscles in the blood
(D) a process that speeds up the clotting of blood
Ans : (A)

15. The greatest value of bees to mankind is in–
(A) supplying of food for birds
(B) insuring pollination of certain crop plants
(C) storing honey for man’s use
(D) furnishing beeswax needed in certain specialised industries 
Ans : (B)

16. All of the following are examples of chemical changes except the–
(A) magnetising of iron (B) rusting of iron
(C) digestion of food (D) souring of milk
Ans : (A)

17. Cancer is a disease which–
(A) cannot be spread by those who have it
(B) is found only in human beings
(C) develops only in certain organs of the body
(D) is passed from generation to generation
Ans : (A)

18. The moon has no atmosphere because–
(A) no atmosphere has ever formed there 
(B) the rocky surface completely absorbed the gases 
(C) due to the low temperature, gases have condensed
(D) its gravitational pull is not strong enough to hold an atmosphere 
 Ans : (D)

19. When a moving bus stops suddenly, the passengers are pushed forward because of the–
(A) friction between the earth and the bus
(B) friction between the passengers and the earth 
(C) inertia of the passengers
(D) inertia of the bus
Ans : (C)

20. Which of the following is not an attribute of bacterium ?
(A) Ability to arise from non-living matter (B) Growth
(C) Reproduction (D) Respiration
Ans : (A)

Wednesday, August 3, 2011


1. Jet engines are
(a) rotary engines
(b) turbine engines
(c) external combustion engines
(d) reaction engines

2. In an engine run on diesel, ignition is caused through
(b) automatic starter
(c)spark plug
(d) compression

3. In an electronic watch, the component corresponding to the pendulum of a pendulum clock is
(b) Balance Wheel
(c) Crystal Oscillator
(d) Diode

4. The hydraulic brakes used in automobiles is a direct application of ?
(a) Archimedes’ Principle
(b) Toricellian law
(c) Bernoulli’s theorem
(d) Pascal’s law

5. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Dynamo converts electrical energy into heat energy and electric motor converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
(b) Dynamo converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
(c) Both dynamo and electric motor convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
(d) Both dynamo and electric motor convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

6.. An electron microscope gives higher magnification than an optical microscope because
(a) it uses more powerful lenses.
(b) the velocity of electrons is smaller than that of visible light.
(c) the electrons have more energy than the light particles.
(d) the wavelength of electrons is smaller as compared to the wavelength of visible light.

7. The conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy is observed in ?
(a) fan
(b) storage battery
(c) heater
(d) incandescent bulb

8. The most efficient engine is ?
(a) Petrol
(b) Diesel
(c) Electric
(d) Steam

9. The tape of a tape recorder is coated with
(a) Zinc oxide
(b) Copper sulphate
(c) Mica
(d) Ferromagnetic powder

10. When a coil is rotated in magnetic field, induced current is generated in the coil. This principle is used in making ?
(a) electromagnet
(b) electric motor
(c) electric generator
(d) electric watt meter

. An ordinary tube light used for lighting purposes
(a) fluorescent material and an inert gas
( b) one filament, reflective material and mercury vapour
(c) fluorescent material and mercury vapour
(d) two filaments, fluorescent material and mercury vapour

12. The term ‘Black Box’ is more commonly used in relation to which of the following?
(a) It is a box in which high grade uranium is kept to prevent radiation.
(b) It is a time capsule in which records of important events are kept to be opened at a later date,
(c) It is a flight recorder in an aero plane.
(d)None of these

The lightning conductor used in building, protects the building by
(a) dissipating the electric charge away from the building
(b) conducting the lightning safely to the ground
(c) absorbing the electric charge
(d) None of these

14. Sodium vapour lamps are preferred over incandescent lamp because of
(a) higher tolerance to voltage fluctuation
(b) higher intensity of illumination
(c) easy installation
(d) None of these

15. The principle of working of periscope is based on
(a) reflection only
(b) refraction only
(c) reflection and refraction
(d) reflection and interference

16. The working of the quartz crystal in the watch is based on
(a) Johnson effect
(b) Photoelectric effect
(c)Edison effect
(d) Piezo electric effect

. A handwritten message can be instantly transmitted as such to any part of the world through
(a) Speed post
(b) Telex
(c)Electronic mail
(d) FAX

Which of the following combinations of aperture and shutter speed of a camera will allow the maximum exposure?
(a) F-5.6,1/l000
(b) F-8,l/250
(c) F-16,l/l25
(d) F-22,1/60

19. Hardware is related to?
(a) calculator
(b) computers
(c) acids
(d) heavy metals

20. Which of the following best explains the phenomenon ‘Simple Harmonic Motion’?
(a) Cylinder
(b) Disc
(c) Pendulum
(d) None of these

21. Distant objects can be seen with the help of
(a) chronometer
(b) microscope
(d) spectroscope

22. The safety fuse should have
(a) high resistance and high melting point
(b) high resistance and low melting point
(c) low resistance and high melting point
(d) low resistance and low melting point

23. Greenhouse is?
(a) a building chiefly of glass in which the temperature is very low.
(b) a building in which green plants are cultivated.
(c) a building chiefly of glass in which the temperature is maintained within the desired range.
(d) None of these

23. Given below are some of the home appliances:
1. 1/8 H.P. Water pump
2. Fluorescenttubelight
3. Room heater
4. Night lamp
Which of the following is the correct sequence in decreasing order of the wattage of the above?
(a) 2,1,3,4
(b) 3,1,2,4
(d) 4,2,1,3

25. Which of the following is/are true regarding the third (thicker) pin in a 3-pin plug?
1. It ensures better electrical contact.
2. It is connected to the body of the electrical device.
3. It is connected to the earth terminal.
4. It is connected to the neutral terminal.
(a) 1 and2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and3
(d) 4only

26. Consider the following statements about a thermos flask:
1. It is a practical device in which the beat flowing into or out of the system by conduction, convection or radiation is reduced as much as possible.
2. It consists of a double – walled glass vessel.
3. The heat transfer by convection is minimized by silvering the surfaces and the radiation is minimized by evacuating the space between the walls.
Of these, the correct ones are
(a) l and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) l and 3
(d) l,2 and 3

27. Which of the following are true regarding the compact fluorescent tubes now available in market for home use?
1. They use less power (about 20%) compared to filament type bulbs for same amount of light.
2. They operate at higher voltages.
3. They are narrower and shorter than common fluorescent tubes.
(a) l and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1,2 and 3

28. In an ordinary dry cell, the electrolyte is
(a) sulphuric acid
(b) manganese dioxide
(c) ammonium chloride
(d) zinc

29. Which of the following pairs of materials serves as electrodes in chargeable batteries commonly used in devices such as torch lights, electric shavers etc. ?
(a) Iron and cadmium
(b) Nickel and cadmium
(c) Lead peroxide and lead
(d) Zinc and carbon

30. The mixed oxide fuel is used for which of the following?
(a) Nuclear Reactors
(b) Aero planes
(c) Cryogenic Engines
(d) PSLV rockets

31. Conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy occurs in ?
(b) electric heaters
(d) atomic bombs

32. In the ordinary fire extinguisher, carbon dioxide is generated by the reaction of ?
(a) marble powder and dilute HCL
(b) magnesite and dilute HCL
(c) limestone and dilute Sulphuric Acid
(d) sodium bicarbonate and dilute Sulphuric Acid

. Which of the following take place when the subject speaks untruth while being tested by the polygraph instrument?
1.. His blood pressure goes up.
2. His pulse quickens.
3. His skin darkens.
4. He sneezes.
(a) l and 2
(b) 3 and 4
(c) l,2 and 3
(4) 2,3 and 4

34. What is the function of a microprocessor in a computer?
(a) It allows the key board to write on the computer.
(b) It allows the outputs to be taken from a computer.
(c) It performs all the functions of a CPU (Central Processing Unit).
(d) None of these

35.Teletext means?
(a) the process of convening black & white TV sets into coloured ones.
(b) flashing of telephone conversation on TV screen.
(c) flashing the text of the message on the telex machine.
(d) flashing of the text of news and information on the TV screen.

36. Which of the following statements about a refrigerator is/are correct?
1. It converts electrical energy into heat energy.
2. It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
3. It transfers heat from a high temperature to a low temperature.
4. It transfers heat from a low temperature to a high temperature.
(a) 1 and3
(b)2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4
(d) 4 only

37. Which of the following statements are true regarding transmission of television programmes?
1. Picture is transmitted with velocity of light.
2. Sound is transmitted with velocity of sound.
3. Sound is transmitted with velocity of light.
4. Different colours of the picture.are transmitted with different velocities.
(a) l and 3
(b) 1,2 and 3
(c) 2,3 and 4
(d) l,3 and 4

38. The anode in a dry cell consists of
(a) graphite
(b) zinc
(c) copper

. The technique used to transmit audio signals in television broadcasts is
(a) Amplitude Modulation
(b) Frequency Modulation
(c) Pulse Code Modulation
(d) Time Division Multiplexing

40 Floppy disc in a computer system is
(a) compiler
(b) core memory
(c) software
(d) device for storing and retrieving data

41. The best colour (s) for a sun umbrella will be
(b) black on top and white on the inside
(c)white on top and black on the inside
(d) printed with all the seven colours of rainbow

42. Which one of the following can be used to confirm whether drinking water contains a gamma emitting isotope or not?
(a) Spectrophotometer
(b) Microscope
(c) Scintillation counter
(d) Lead plate

43. The following processes take place during the
launching of a rocket:
1. Rocket fuel is burnt.
2. Gases are produced.
3. Rocket moves in the forward direction.
4. Gases come out with momentum in back ward direction.
The correct sequential order in which the above processes occur, is
(a) 1,2,3,4
(b) 1,3,2,4
(c) 1,2,4,3
(d) 1,3,4,2

44. A computer can be freely programmable
(a) if it is of a digital type
( if it is controlled synchronously
(c) if it contains a read only memory (ROM)
(d) if it contains a random access memory(RAM)

45. Which of the following polymers is widely used for making bullet proof material?
(a) Polyethylene
(b) Polyamides
(c) Polyvinyl chloride
(d) Polycarbonates

46. What is a flow chart in computer terminology?
(a) A graphical representation of a sequence of operations in a computer program
(b) A circular chart used for computer languages
(c) A debugging programme.
(d) None of these

47. A transistor is most likely to be found in a
(a)wrist watch
(b) fuse
(c)hearing aid
(d) fluorescent lamp

. Ball bearings are used to reduce friction by
(a) applying lubricants to the balls used
(b) reducing the area of contact with the use of metallic balls
(c) increasing the area of contact with the use of metallic balls
(d)None of these

49. Aviation fuel for jet aeroplanes consists of purified
(b) kerosene
(d) diesel

. Recoil of a gun is an example of
(a) conservation of mass
(b) conservation of energy
(c) conversion of Potential Energy into Kinetic Energy
(d) conservation of linear momentum

1.D 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. B 6.D 7. B 8. C 9. D 10. C
11.D 12. C 13. B 14. B 15. C 16. D 17. D 18. B 19. B 20. C
21. C 22. B 23. C 24. B 25. B 26. A 27. D 28. C 29. B 30. C
31. C 32. D 33. A 34. C 35. D 36. C 37. A 38. A 39. C 40. D
41. C 42. C 43. C 44. C 45. A 46. A 47. C 48. B 49. A 50. D

Atomic Numbers

Name Symbol Atomic Number
Hydrogen H 1
Helium He 2
Lithium Li 3
Beryllium Be 4
Boron B 5
Carbon C 6
Nitrogen N 7
Oxygen O 8
Flourine F 9
Neon Ne 10
Sodium (Natrium) Na 11
Magnesium Mg 12
Aluminium Al 13
Silicon Si 14
Phosphorous P 15
Sulphur S 16
Chlorine Cl 17
Argon Ar 18
Potassium (Kalium) K 19
Calcium Ca 20
Titanium Ti 22
Vanadium V 23
Chromium Cr 24
Manganese Mn 25
Iron (Ferum) Fe 26
Cobalt Co 27
Nickel Ni 28
Copper (Cuprum) Cu 29
Zinc Zn 30
Germenium Ge 32
Bromine Br 35
Krypton Kr 36
Zirconium Zr 40
Silver Ag 47
Tin (Stannum) Sn 50
vAntimony (Stabnium) Sb 51
Iodine I 53
Barium Ba 56
Gold (Aurum) Au 79
Mercury (Hydragerm) Hg 80
Lead (Plumbum) Pb 82
Bismuth Bi 83
Radium Ra 88
Thorium U 90
Uranium U 92
Plutonium Pu 94
Curium Cm 96

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Strengthening Regional Cooperation of ICIMOD

Several initiatives has been taken by the  Government of India for sustainable development of the Himalayan region and also strengthening the regional collaboration with organizations particularly the ICIMOD. India has played an active role in activities and programmes of ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development).
           ICIMOD’s long policy objectives, integrated programmes and action initiatives are in coherence with the national objectives of overall sustainable development of fragile and vulnerable hill region. The integrated programmes are related to natural resource management (NRM) , Agriculture and rural income distribution (ARID), Water hazards and Environmental Management (WHEM), Culture, Equity , Gender and Governance (CEGG), Policy & Partnership Development (PPD), Information & Knowledge Management (IKM).
           During the course its Medium  Term Action Plan (MTAP) for the period 2003 to 2007, ICIMOD has worked with  more than 37 partners in our country in a number of projects  in the field of forestry, watershed management, flood control , water management, biodiversity, beekeeping, sustainable technologies in the field of agriculture and soil conservation, and training & advocacy. The partners represent and immense heterogeneity, ranging from G.B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, North – Eastern Council and North-Eastern Hill University, to Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and NGO’s like Navrachna, Palampur and Grassroots options, Shillong. The medium term action plan II (2008-2012) of ICIMOD has identified 3 thematic 3 thematic thrust areas; Integrated Water & Hazards Management, Environmental Change and Ecosystem Services, and Sustainable livelihoods and Poverty Reduction. These programmes are subdivided into 9 Action Areas of cooperation level with regional partners.
           Considering the fragility and importance of the Himalaya a National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) has been included in the eight National Missions of National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) with the objectives of conserving and protecting Himalayan glaciers and its ecosystem. It is the only area specific action areas under the NMSHE is improving trans-boundary exchange of information through mutually agreed mechanisms. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has also made a beginning through trans-boundary transect (landscape) based approach to address critical issues related to Himalayan ecosystem. One such project on Kailash Sacred Landscape (KSL) has been launched recently.
           The ICIOM and the GBPIHED has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Sept 25, 2008 with the approval of GOI to increase the potential for mutually beneficial research work, enable efficient co-ordination and ensure the sustainability of partnership between the ICIMOD and the GOI. The other important Consideration for this MOU is that both the ICIMOD and the GBPIHED, will be able to appreciate each other’s comparative advantages and collaborate to achieve the environmentally sustainable development in the Indian Himalayan region through establishing a mutually agreed mechanism of experience sharing on similar aspects in other parts of the Himalayan region, including other member countries. Considering this , the GBPIHED has established an ICIMOD Cell in the Institute effective implementation of the activities of ICIMOD in India as a Key Partner and a focal Point of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.


The landward displacement of the shoreline caused by the forces of waves and current is termed as sea erosion. The main causes of the sea erosion include both natural causes like action of winds waves, tides, storms etc. and anthropogenic activities including construction of artificial structures, mining of beach sand, offshore dredging, or building of dams or rivers. In addition to that, various catastrophic events also trigger coastal erosion which include tsunamis, tectonic movement etc. The coastlines are threatened by a combination of human pressures and climate change and variability arising especially from sea-level rise, increases in sea surface temperature, and possible increases in extreme weather events. Key impacts include accelerated coastal erosion, saline intrusion into freshwater lenses, and increased accelerated coastal erosion, and increased flooding from the sea. Sea-level rise will exacerbate inundation, erosion and other coastal hazards; threaten vital infrastructure, settlements and facilities.
            Studies conducted by the National Institute of Oceanography in the northern part of Indian Ocean in the last 40 years concluded that the sea level rose by 1.06-1.75mm/year in the past century. Scientific studies on climate change show that the period up to the end of the century and beyond project a likely rise in sea level of the order of 55-60mm. Survey of India has established 26 tide gauges. All of these tide gauge stations are transmitting data in real time to the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
            Various approaches can be adopted to effectively manage erosion. The main approaches adopted are as follows:
            Backshore management: This approach will involve relocation and allows natural processes to continue with possible strategic benefits spread over adjacent areas. Also, it does not involve any management costs.
            Dune grass planting: The technique will involve vegetation which encourages dune growth by trapping and stabilizing blown sand. These natural dune grasses act to reduce wind speeds across the surface, thereby trapping and holding sand. They grow both vertically and horizontally as the sand accumulates. Marram grass is particularly effective as it positively thrives on growing dunes, and is perhaps the easiest to transplant.
            Dune Thatching: Thatching is a traditional way of stabilising sand, and protecting vegetation which involves waste cuttings from forestry management, or other low cost materials. Well laid thatch will encourage dune recovery and will resist some erosion, but cannot prevent erosion where wave attack is frequent and damaging. The thatch reduces surface wind speeds, encouraging deposition of blown sand.
            Dune Fencing: Construction of semi-permeable fences along the seaward face of dunes will encourage the deposition of windblown sand, reduce trampling and protect existing or transplanted vegetation. A variety of fencing materials can be used successfully to enhance natural recovery. Fencing can also be used in conjunction with other management schemes to encourage dune stabilisation and reduce environmental impacts.

Scheme in Operation
            In XI Five Year Plan, specific anti-sea erosion problems have been addressed under State Sector scheme – Flood Management Programme of Ministry of Water Resources. Though anti-sea erosion works are planned and executed by the State Governments, realizing the severity of sea erosion problems in certain reaches of the coastline , MoWR initiated the process of collecting details of severely affected reaches with a view to exploring the possibility of preparing a National Coastal Protection Project (NCPP) and taking up the same for external assistance.
            India and Asian Development Bank (ADB), initiated a Technical Assistance on preparing a Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Project for the States of Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra initially. This broadly supports National Coastal Protection Project (NCPP).Appropriate protection measures arising out of the coastal erosion are addressed jointly by respective state governments and the Central Water Commission.

Saturday, July 2, 2011


Paleontology is a rich field, imbued with a long and interesting past and an even more intriguing and hopeful future. Many people think paleontology is the study of fossils. In fact, paleontology is much more.
Paleontology is traditionally divided into various subdisciplines:
    Micropaleontology: Study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group to which they belong. Paleobotany: Study of fossil plants; traditionally includes the study of fossil algae and fungi in addition to land plants. Palynology: Study of pollen and spores, both living and fossil, produced by land plants and protists. Invertebrate Paleontology: Study of invertebrate animal fossils, such as mollusks, echinoderms, and others. Vertebrate Paleontology: Study of vertebrate fossils, from primitive fishes to mammals. Human Paleontology (Paleoanthropology): The study of prehistoric human and proto-human fossils. Taphonomy: Study of the processes of decay, preservation, and the formation of fossils in general. Ichnology: Study of fossil tracks, trails, and footprints. Paleoecology: Study of the ecology and climate of the past, as revealed both by fossils and by other methods.
In short, paleontology is the study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past, about evolution, and about our place, as humans, in the world. Paleontology incorporates knowledge from biology, geology, ecology, anthropology, archaeology, and even computer science to understand the processes that have led to the origination and eventual destruction of the different types of organisms since life arose. The exhibits that we have set up here are created by paleontogists. More than just an overview of the diversity that has existed through time on this planet, the exhibits also highlight some of the research that paleontologists are conducting at the Museum of Paleontology.

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Human Body Facts

  • In one day, a human sheds 10 billion skin flakes. This amounts to approximately two kilograms in a year.
  • Every square inch of the human body has about 19,000,000 skin cells.
  • Approximately 25% of all scald burns to children are from hot tap water and is associated with more deaths than with any other liquid.
  • Forty-one percent of women apply body and hand moisturizer at least three times a day.
  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.
  • The world record for the number of body piercing on one individual is 702, which is held by Canadian Brent Moffat.
  • The small intestine in the human body is about 2 inches around, and 22 feet long.
  • The human body makes anywhere from 1 to 3 pints of saliva every 24 hours.
  • The human body has approximately 37,000 miles of capillaries.
  • The aorta, which is largest artery located in the body, is about the diameter of a garden hose.
  • The adult human body requires about 88 pounds of oxygen daily.
  • It is very common for babies in New Zealand to sleep on sheepskins. This is to help them gain weight faster, and retain their body heat.
  • An average women has 17 square feet of skin. When a women is in her ninth month of pregnancy she has 18.5 square feet of skin.
  • The width of your armspan stretched out is the length of your whole body.
  • 41% of women apply body or hand moisturizer a minimum three times a day.
  • A human's small intestine is 6 meters long.
  • There are as many hairs per square inch on your body as a chimpanzee. You don't see all of them because most are too fine and light to be noticed.
  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.
  • Dead cells in the body ultimately go to the kidneys for excretion.
  • By walking an extra 20 minutes every day, an average person will burn off seven pounds of body fat in an year.
  • The human body is 75% water.
Heart Facts
  • Women hearts beat faster than men.
  • Three years after a person quits smoking, there chance of having a heart attack is the same as someone who has never smoked before.
  • The human heart weighs less than a pound.
  • The human heart can create enough pressure that it could squirt blood at a distance of thirty feet.
  • The first open heart surgery was performed by Dr. Daniel Hall Williams in 1893.
  • Scientists have discovered that the longer the ring finger is in boys the less chance they have of having a heart attack.
  • The right lung of a human is larger than the left one. This is because of the space and placement of the heart.
  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.
  • Olive oil can help in lowering cholesterol levels and decreasing the risk of heart complications.
  • In a lifetime, the heart pumps about one million barrels of blood.
  • In 1967, the first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • People that suffer from gum disease are twice as likely to have a stroke or heart attack.
  • Most heart attacks occur between the hours of 8 and 9 AM.
  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.
  • At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions.
Brain Facts
  • Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression than men in the United States.
  • The human brain has about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons.
  • From all the oxygen that a human breathes, twenty percent goes to the brain.
  • People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.
  • Once a human reaches the age of 35, he/she will start losing approximately 7,000 brain cells a day. The cells will never be replaced.
  • It is not possible to tickle yourself. The cerebellum, a part of the brain, warns the rest of the brain that you are about to tickle yourself. Since your brain knows this, it ignores the resulting sensation.
  • A women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder.
  • In America, the most common mental illness is Anxiety Disorders.
  • Your brain is 80% water.
  • Your brain is move active and thinks more at night than during the day.
Bones Facts
  • The smallest bone in the human body is the stapes bone which is located in the ear.
  • There are 54 bones in your hands including the wrists.
  • The only bone fully grown at birth is located in the ear.
  • The human face is made up of 14 bones.
  • The chances of getting a cavity is higher if candy is eaten slowly throughout the day compared to eating it all at once and then brushing your teeth.
  • If an identical twin grows up without having a certain tooth, the other twin will most likely also grow up with that tooth missing.
  • Humans are born with 300 bones in their body, however when a person reaches adulthood they only have 206 bones. This occurs because many of them join together to make a single bone.
  • Gardening is said to be one of the best exercises for maintaining healthy bones.
  • Enamel is hardest substance in the human body.
  • Although the outsides of a bone are hard, they are generally light and soft inside. They are about 75% water.
  • Adult human bones account for 14% of the body's total weight.
  • In 2000 babies are born with a tooth that is already visible.
  • Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!
  • Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete.
  • The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it's hollow!                            
Blood Facts
  • Two million red blood cells die every second.
  • There are approximately 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.
  • Seven percent of a humans body weight is made up of blood.
  • In the early nineteenth century some advertisements claimed that riding the carousel was good for the circulation of blood.
  • Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys.
  • By donating just one pint of blood, four lives can be saved.
  • Blood is such a good stain that Native Americans used it for paint.
  • The kidneys filter over 400 gallons of blood each day.
  • The average life span of a single red blood cell is 120 days.
  • Blood accounts for about 8% of a human's body weight.
  • A woman has approximately 4.5 liters of blood in her body, while men have 5.6 liters.
  • Your blood takes a very long trip through your body. If you could stretch out all of a human's blood vessels, they would be about 60,000 miles long. That's enough to go around the world twice.
  • Half your body’s red blood cells are replaced every seven days.
  • If all the blood vessels in your body were laid end to end, they would reach about 60,000 miles.
Eyes Facts
  • We should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.
  • Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.
  • Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.
  • Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don't want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes. We don't want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!
  • The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.
  • The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.
  • The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.
  • The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.
  • The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.
  • The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.
  • The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.
  • Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.
  • Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.
  • People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.
  • Men are able to read fine print better than women can.
  • In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.
  • All babies are colour blind when they are born.
  • A human eyeball weighs an ounce.
  • If the lens in our eye doesn't work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye's own lens to help us see better.
  • Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.
  • The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.
  • The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.
  • Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.
  • The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.
  • It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
  • The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.
  • Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the "retina." On the retina are cells called "rods" and "cones." These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.
  • Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.
  • Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the "conjunctiva."
  • The white part of our eye is called the "sclera." At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the "cornea."
  • Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the "iris." Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.
  • Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the "pupil." It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.
  • Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
Mouth Facts
  • In a month, a fingernail grows an eighth of an inch.
  • People whose mouth has a narrow roof are more likely to snore. This is because they have less oxygen going through their nose.
  • While sleeping, one man in eight snores, and one in ten grinds his teeth.
  • It takes food seven seconds to go from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus.
Tongue Facts
  • Close to fifty percent of the bacteria in the mouth lives on the surface of our tongue.
  • There are approximately 9,000 taste buds on the tongue.
  • Your tongue has 3,000 taste buds.
  • 85% of the population can curl their tongue into a tube.                                                             
Hair Facts
  • On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.
  • On average, a hair strand's life span is five and a half years.
  • On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.
  • Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.
  • In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.
  • Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.
  • Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.
  • The average human head weighs about eight pounds.
  • The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.
  • The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing "melanin" which gives the hair colour.
  • The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.
  • The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.
  • The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.
  • The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.
  • The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
  • Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.
  • Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.
  • Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.
  • The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.
  • A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.
  • Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.
  • Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man's hair product.
  • Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.
  • A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.
  • A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.
Diseases Facts
  • People that use mobile phones are 2.5 time more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain that are adjacent to the ear they use to talk on the mobile phone.
  • Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress.
  • Over 436,000 U.S. Troops were exposed to depleted uranium during the first Gulf war.
  • On average, 90% of the people that have the disease Lupus are female.
  • Many cancer patients that are treated with chemotherapy lose their hair. For some when the hair grows back, it can grow back a different colour, or be curly or straight.
  • Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for about 180,000 deaths per year.
  • Chances of a women getting breast cancer are increased by excessive use of alcohol.
  • A popular superstition is that if you put a piece of bread in a baby's crib, it will keep away diseases.
  • A person that is struck by lightning has a greater chance of developing motor neurons disease.
  • Every year in the U.S., there are 178,000 new cases of lung cancer.
  • Every three minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Asthma affects one in fifteen children under the age of eighteen.
  • Every eleven minutes in the U.S., a woman dies of breast cancer.
  • Due to eating habits in the USA, one in three children born in the year 2000 have a chance of getting type II diabetes.
  • The oldest known disease in the world is leprosy.
  • The number one cause of rabies in the United States are bats.
  • Coughing can cause air to move through your windpipe faster than the speed of sound — over a thousand feet per second!
  • A headache and inflammatory pain can be reduced by eating 20 tart cherries.
  • The incidents of immune system diseases has increased over 200% in the last five years.
  • The flu pandemic of 1918 killed over 20 million people.
  • Each year in America there are about 300,000 deaths that can be attributed to obesity.
  • Every three days a human stomach gets a new lining.
  • The first owner of the Marlboro Company, Wayne McLaren, died of lung cancer.
  • Soldiers disease is a term for morphine addiction. The Civil War produced over 400,000 morphine addicts.
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by ticks.
  • A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet.
  • A study indicates that smokers are likely to die on average six and a half years earlier than non-smokers.
  • A person who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day will on average lose two teeth every ten years.
  • Lady Peseshet is known to be the world's first known female physician. She practiced during the time of the pyramids, which was the fourth dynasty.
  • The DNA of humans is closer to a rat than a cat.
  • Teenage suicide is the second cause of death in the state of Wisconsin.
  • Teenage cosmetic surgeries nearly doubled in the USA between 1996 and 1998.
  • Studies indicate that weightlifters working out in blue gyms can handle heavier weights.
  • Studies indicate that listening to music is good for digestion.
  • Studies indicate that epileptic patients that listen to Mozart's Piano Sonata can dramatically decrease their chance of a seizure.
  • Lack of sleep can affect your immune system and reduce your ability to fight infections.
  • It takes about three hours for food to be broken down in the human stomach.
  • Over 40 million Americans have chronic bad breath.
  • Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes.
  • Fourteen people die each day from asthma in the United States.
  • Every day the human stomach produces about 2 liters of hydrochloric acid.
  • Nearly half of all Americans suffer from symptoms of burnout.In humans, the epidermal layer of skin, which consists of many layers of skin regenerates every 27 days.
  • Native Americans used to use pumpkin seeds for medicine.
  • In ancient Egypt, doctors used jolts from the electric catfish to reduce the pain of arthritis.
  • The lining of the a person's stomach is replaced every 36 hours.
  • The purpose of tonsils is to destroy foreign substances that are swallowed or breathed in.
  • In the United States, poisoning is the fourth leading cause of death among children.
  • The risk of cardiovascular disease is twice as high in women that snore regularly compared to women who do not snore.
  • The stomach of an adult can hold 1.5 liters of material.
  • The stomach can break down goat's milk faster than the milk of a cow.
  • The smoke that is produced by a fire kills more people than a burn does because of carbon monoxide and other dangerous gases.
  • It has been medically been proven that laughter is an effective pain killer.
  • Influenza caused over twenty-one million deaths in 1918.
  • In a year, there are 60,000 trampoline injuries that occur in the U.S.
  • Even if you eat food standing on your head, the food will still end up in your stomach.
  • A person infected with the SARS virus, has a 95-98% chance of recovery.
  • 3000 children die every day in Africa because of malaria.                                                          
Pregnancy Facts
  • The world's first test tube twins are Stephen and Amanda Mays born June 5, 1981.
  • Some people drink the urine of pregnant women to build up their immune system.
  • The first known contraceptive was crocodile dung, used by Egyptians in 2000 B.C.
  • Every day, over 1,300 babies are born prematurely in the USA.
  • During pregnancy, the average woman's uterus expands up to five hundred times its normal size.
  • Changing a cat's litter box can be dangerous to pregnant women, as cat feces sometimes carry a parasite that can cause harm to the developing baby.
  • A pregnant woman's dental health can affect her unborn child.
  • May babies are on avearge 200 grams heavier than babies born in other months.
  • When a women is pregnant, her senses are all heightened.
  • Studies show that couples that smoke during the time of conception have a higher chance of having a girl compared to couples that do not smoke.
Sex Facts
  • There are approximately 100 million acts of sexual intercourse each day.
  • The sperm count of an average American male compared to thirty years ago is down thirty percent.
    An adult esophagus can range from 10 to 14 inches in length and is one inch in diameter.
  • Men sweat more than women. This is because women can better regulate the amount of water they lose.
  • The average amount of time spent kissing for a person in a lifetime is 20,160 minutes.
  • The average adult has approximately six pounds of skin.
  • Infants spend more time dreaming than adults do.
  • In one day, adult lungs move about 10,000 liters of air.
  • The condom made originally of linen was invented in the early 1500's. Casanova, the womanizer, used linen condoms.
  • Sex burns about 70-120 calories for a 130 pound woman, and 77 to 155 calories for a 170 pound man every hour.
  • Impotence is grounds for divorce in 26 U.S. states.
  • There are approximately 45 billion fat cells in an average adult.
  • Kissing can aid in reducing tooth decay. This is because the extra saliva helps in keeping the mouth clean.
  • During the female orgasm, endorphines are released, which are powerful painkillers. So headaches are in fact a bad excuse not to have sex.
  • During World War II, condoms were used to cover rifle barrels from being damaged by salt water as the soldiers swam to shore.
  • According to psychologists, the shoe and the foot are the most common sources of sexual fetishism in Western society.
  • A kiss for one minute can burn 26.                                                                                                  
Other Human Body Facts
  • The Gastric Flu can cause projectile vomiting.
  • The Dutch people are known to be the tallest people in Europe.
  • Studies have shown that the scent of Rosemary can help in better mental performance and make individuals feel more alert.
  • Some brands of toothpaste contain glycerin or glycerol, which is also an ingredient in antifreeze.
  • Soaking beans for twelve hours in water before they are cooked can reduce flatulence caused by beans.
  • Scientists say that babies that are breastfed are more likely to be slimmer as adults than those that are not breastfed.
  • Scientists have determined that having guilty feelings may actually damage your immune system
    Research has indicated that approximately eleven minutes are cut off the life of an average male smoker from each cigarette smoked.
  • People have the tendency to chew the food on the side that they most often use their hand.
  • Over 600,000 people died as a result of the Spanish influenza epidemic.
  • Only one out of every three people wash their hands when leaving a public bathroom.
  • One ragweed plant can release as many as a million grains of pollen in one day.
  • One out of 20 people have an extra rib.
  • One average, men spend 60 hours a year shaving.
  • On average, falling asleep while driving results in 550 accidents per day in the United States.
  • On average, a person has two million sweat glands.
  • On average, Americans spend 33% of their life sleeping.
  • On average a person passes gas 14 times a day.
  • On average 1,668 gallons of water are used by each person in the United States daily.
  • Nerve impulses for muscle position travel at a speed of up to 390 feet per second.
  • Nerve cells can travel as fast as 120 meters per second.
  • Mummy powder was once thought to be a cure for all remedies. English men used to carry the powder with them in a tiny bag wherever they went.
  • Men in their early twenties shave an average of four times a week.
  • Medical research has found substances in mistletoe that can slow down tumor growth.
  • Medical reports show that about 18% of the population are prone to sleepwalking.
  • Manicuring the nails has been done by people for more than 4,000 years.
  • Left-handed people are better at sports that require good spatial judgment and fast reaction, compared to right-handed individuals.
  • Ironically, when doctors in Los Angeles, California went on strike in 1976, the daily number of deaths in the city dropped 18%.
  • In the United States, 8.5 million cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures were done in the year 2001.
  • People with darker skin will not wrinkle as fast as people with lighter skin.
  • People with allergies can lower allergy reactions by laughing.
  • People who meet their calcium need reduce their risk of developing kidney stones.
  • People that smoke have 10 times as many wrinkles as a person that does not smoke.
  • People still cut the cheese shortly after death.
  • People over the age of fifty will start to lose their dislike for foods that taste bitter.
  • People of Ancient China believed that swinging your arms could cure a headache.
  • The average weight of a newborn baby is 7 lbs. 6 oz. For a triplet baby it is 3 lbs. 12 oz.
  • The average person spends two weeks of their life kissing.
  • The average person falls asleep in about 12 to 14 minutes.
  • There are approximately one hundred million people in the United States that have a chronic illness.
  • There are approximately 60 muscles in the face.
  • There are 50% more males that are left handed compared to females.
  • There are 400 species of bacteria in the human colon.
  • There are 10 million bacteria at the place where you rest your hands at a desk.
  • In a lifetime, an average human produces 10,000 gallons of saliva.
  • In a lifetime, an average driver will release approximately 912 pints of wind inside a car.
  • In Canada, men are three times more likely than women to have seen a doctor in the last year.
  • In 1832, in Paisley, Scotland the first municipal water filtration works was opened.
  • Humans breathe in and out approximately one litre of air in ten seconds.
  • Girls have more tastebud than boys.
  • From the age of thirty, humans gradually begin to shrink in size.
  • Flu shots only work about 70% of the time.
  • Gases that build up in your large intestine cause flatulence. It usually takes about 30 to 45 minutes for these gases to pass through your system.
  • Fat is important for the development of children and normal growth.
  • Every day, the average person swallows about a quart of snot.
  • Eighty percent of 10 year old girls in the USA go on a diet.
  • Air is passed through the nose at a speed of 100 miles per hour when a person sneezes.
  • About twenty-five percent of the population sneeze when they are exposed to light.
  • A yawn usually lasts for approximately six seconds.
  • Children who are breast fed tend to have an IQ seven points higher than children who are not.
  • Children grow faster in the springtime than any other season during the year.
  • Eating chocolate three times a month helps people live longer as opposed to people who overeat chocolate or do not eat chocolate at all.
  • Constipation is caused when too much water is absorbed in the large intestine and poops become dry.
  • A ear trumpet was used before the hearing aid was invented by people who had difficulty hearing.
  • The average human dream lasts only 2 to 3 seconds.
  • The average person has at least seven dreams a night.
  • Bile produced by the liver is responsible for making your feces a brownish, green colour.
  • It takes more muscles to frown than it does to smile.
  • By the time you are 70 you will have easily drunk over 12,000 gallons of water.
  • A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for approximately sixty-nine years.
  • The average person walks the equivalent of twice around the world in a lifetime.
  • The average person laughs about 15 times a day.
  • The vocabulary of the average person consists of 5,000 to 6,000 words.
  • About 10% of the world's population is left-handed.