Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Important Lines and Boundaries

Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. It was drawn up in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand.
Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I.
Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United States.
Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification built by France along its border with Germany before World War II, to protect its boundary from German attack.
Mannerheim Line is the line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Drawn up by General Mannerheim.
MacMahon Line was drawn up by Sir. Henry MacMahon, demarcating the frontier of India and China. China did not recognize the MacMahon line and crossed it in 1962.
Medicine Line is the border between Canada and the United States.
Order-Neisse Line is the border between Poland and Germany, running along the Order and Neisse rivers, adopted at the Poland Conference (Aug 1945) after World War II.
Radcliffe Line was drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe, demarcating the boundary between India and Pakistan. Siegfried Line is the line of fortification drawn up by Germany on its border with France.
17th Parallel defined the boundary between North Vietnam and South Vietnam before the two were united.
24th Parallel is the line which Pakistan claims for demarcation between India and Pakistan. This, however, is not recognized by India.
26th parallel south is a circle of latitude which crosses through Africa, Australia and South America.
30th parallel north is a line of latitude that stands one-third of the way between the equator and the North Pole.

33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude which cuts through the southern United States, parts of North Africa, parts of the Middle East, and China.
35th parallel north forms the boundary between the State of North Carolina and the State of Georgia and the boundary between the State of Tennessee arid the State of Georgia, the State of Alabama, and the State of Mississippi.
36th parallel forms the southernmost boundary of the State of Missouri With the State of Arkansas.
36°30' parallel north forms the boundary between the Tennessee and Commonwealth of Kentucky between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River, the boundary between Missouri and Arkansas west of the White River, and the northernmost boundary between the Texas and the Oklahoma.
37th parallel north formed the southern boundary of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
38th Parallel is the parallel of latitude which separates North Korea and South Korea.
39th parallel north is an imaginary circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
40th parallel north formed the original northern boundary of the British Colony of Maryland.
41st parallel north forms the northern boundary of the State of Colorado with Nebraska and Wyoming and the southern boundary of the State of Wyoming with Colorado and Utah.
42nd parallel north forms most of the New York - Pennsylvania Border.
43rd parallel north forms most of the boundary between the State of Nebraska and the State of South Dakota and also formed the northern border of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
The parallel 44° north is an imaginary circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
45th parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equator and the North Pole. The 45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between Montana and Wyoming.
45th parallel of south latitude is the east-west line that marks the theoretical halfway point between the equator and the South Pole.
49th Parallel is the boundary between USA and Canada.

Towns Associated with Industries

  • Agra : Stoneware, leather, carpets and marbles.
  • Ahmedabad : Cotton-textiles.
  • Aligarh : Cutlery, locks and dairy-industries.
  • Ambala : Scientific goods.
  • Amritsar : Cloth-printing, carpets, woollen goods, shawls.
  • Bangalore : Watches, telephone, aircraft industry.
  • Bareilly : Rubber factory, match factory, wood work.
  • Bhagalpur : Silk.
  • Chennai : Integral coach factory, leather, cigarette, cotton.
  • Mumbai : Chemicals, oil refineries, fertilizers, film, industry, woollen goods, cotton manufacturing.
  • Chittaranjan : Electrical locomotives.
  • Churk : Cement.
  • Cochin : Coffee, coconut oil, ship-building.
  • Dalmianagar : Cement.
  • Darjeeling : Tea, orange.
  • Delhi : Textiles, chemicals, electronics, sewing machines.
  • Dhariwal : Woollen goods.
  • Ferozabad : Glass-bangles.
  • Hardwar : Heavy electricals.
  • Jamshedpur : Iron and steel works, train coaches locomotives.
  • Jallandhur : Sports articles and surgical goods.
  • Jaipur : Ivory work, brass work, jewellery, pottery, cloth painting.
  • Kolkata : Iron and steel, jute, paper, pottery.
  • Kanpur : Leather, cotton, aircraft factories, woollen mills, soap, iron, flour mills.
  • Kolar : Gold-fields.
  • Lucknow : Embroidery, gold, silver, lac work.
  • Ludhiana : Hosiery, cycle.
  • Mirzapur : Carpet, pottery, stoneware and brass.
  • Moradabad : Brassware, cutlery, enamel industry.
  • Karnataka : Sandalwood oil, ivory work, silk goods.
  • Renukoot : Hindustan Aluminium Works.
  • Saharanpur : Paper mill.
  • Srinagar : H.M.T. factory, woodwork, embroidery, paper machine, woollen shawls.
  • Surat : Cotton textiles.
  • Tarapur : Atomic power plant.
  • Titagarh : Paper and jute.
  • Trombay : Oil refineries, atomic-reactors.
  • Varanasi : Diesel-locomotives, brass-wares, lac bangles.
  • Vishakhapatnam : Ship-building.

Major Industries and its Centres

Cotton Textiles
Mumbai, Sholapur, Nagpur, Pune, Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Indore; Chennai, Madurai and Coimbatore, Kanpur and Kolkata.

Jute Textiles
West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, U.P. and M.P.

Silk Textiles
Asom, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Orissa, U.P., M.P., W. Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Punjab.

Woollen Textile
The chief centres of woollen textiles are Punjab, U.P., Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal.

Sugar Industry
U.P., Bihar and some centres are there in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Punjab.

Cement Industry
Jharkhand, M.P., Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Haryana, U.P. and Orissa have some factories also.

Paper Industry
West Bengal, Maharashtra, U.P., Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

Iron and Steel Industry
Jamshedpur, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Bhilai (Chattisgarh), Durgapur, Hirapur, Kulti, Burnpur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Rourkela (Orissa) and Neyveli (Tamil Nadu).

Leather Industry
Chennai, Agra, Kolkata, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai, Deonaar, Deevaghat.

Alwaye (Kerala), Muri (Jharkhand), Hirakud (Orissa), Renukoot (U.P.), Bailur (W. Bengal), Koyna Mettur (Tamilnadu) and Hirakud (Orissa).
Bareilly, Kolkata, Chennai, Gwalior and Hyderabad.

Photo Film Industry
Ootacamund (Tamil Nadu).

Ferozabad, Shikohabad, Bahjoi, Naini, Haorah, Bangalore and Belgaon.

Chemical Industry
Delhi, Pimpri, Pune, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Rishikesh, Bangalore and Amritsar.

Rubber-Goods Industry
Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ballabhgarh, Shahaganj, Chamanacheri and Ambatoor.

Locomotive Industry
Chittaranjan (West Bengal), Varanasi in U.P., Perambur (Tamil Nadu).

Automobile Industry
Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Jamshed<%0>pur, Pune and Gurgaon.

Antibiotic Industry
Rishikesh, Pimpri and Delhi.

Aircraft Manufacturing Industry
Bangalore, Kanpur, Nasik, Koraput and Hyderabad.

Fertilizers Industry
Durgapur, Kanpur, Foolpur (Uttar Pradesh), Haldia, Namrup, Rourkela, Vadodara, Barauni, Vishakhapatnam, Gorakhpur, etc.

Plastic Industry
Mumbai, Kolkata, Amritsar, Kanpur, Hyderabad and Coimbatore.

Petro-Chemical Industry
Vadodara and Mumbai, Bongaigoan, Asom

Human Body Facts

  • In one day, a human sheds 10 billion skin flakes. This amounts to approximately two kilograms in a year.
  • Every square inch of the human body has about 19,000,000 skin cells.
  • Approximately 25% of all scald burns to children are from hot tap water and is associated with more deaths than with any other liquid.
  • Forty-one percent of women apply body and hand moisturizer at least three times a day.
  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.
  • The world record for the number of body piercing on one individual is 702, which is held by Canadian Brent Moffat.
  • The small intestine in the human body is about 2 inches around, and 22 feet long.
  • The human body makes anywhere from 1 to 3 pints of saliva every 24 hours.
  • The human body has approximately 37,000 miles of capillaries.
  • The aorta, which is largest artery located in the body, is about the diameter of a garden hose.
  • The adult human body requires about 88 pounds of oxygen daily.
  • It is very common for babies in New Zealand to sleep on sheepskins. This is to help them gain weight faster, and retain their body heat.
  • An average women has 17 square feet of skin. When a women is in her ninth month of pregnancy she has 18.5 square feet of skin.
  • The width of your armspan stretched out is the length of your whole body.
  • 41% of women apply body or hand moisturizer a minimum three times a day.
  • A human's small intestine is 6 meters long.
  • There are as many hairs per square inch on your body as a chimpanzee. You don't see all of them because most are too fine and light to be noticed.
  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.
  • Dead cells in the body ultimately go to the kidneys for excretion.
  • By walking an extra 20 minutes every day, an average person will burn off seven pounds of body fat in an year.
  • The human body is 75% water.
Heart Facts
  • Women hearts beat faster than men.
  • Three years after a person quits smoking, there chance of having a heart attack is the same as someone who has never smoked before.
  • The human heart weighs less than a pound.
  • The human heart can create enough pressure that it could squirt blood at a distance of thirty feet.
  • The first open heart surgery was performed by Dr. Daniel Hall Williams in 1893.
  • Scientists have discovered that the longer the ring finger is in boys the less chance they have of having a heart attack.
  • The right lung of a human is larger than the left one. This is because of the space and placement of the heart.
  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.
  • Olive oil can help in lowering cholesterol levels and decreasing the risk of heart complications.
  • In a lifetime, the heart pumps about one million barrels of blood.
  • In 1967, the first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • People that suffer from gum disease are twice as likely to have a stroke or heart attack.
  • Most heart attacks occur between the hours of 8 and 9 AM.
  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.
  • At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions.
Brain Facts
  • Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression than men in the United States.
  • The human brain has about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons.
  • From all the oxygen that a human breathes, twenty percent goes to the brain.
  • People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.
  • Once a human reaches the age of 35, he/she will start losing approximately 7,000 brain cells a day. The cells will never be replaced.
  • It is not possible to tickle yourself. The cerebellum, a part of the brain, warns the rest of the brain that you are about to tickle yourself. Since your brain knows this, it ignores the resulting sensation.
  • A women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder.
  • In America, the most common mental illness is Anxiety Disorders.
  • Your brain is 80% water.
  • Your brain is move active and thinks more at night than during the day.
Bones Facts
  • The smallest bone in the human body is the stapes bone which is located in the ear.
  • There are 54 bones in your hands including the wrists.
  • The only bone fully grown at birth is located in the ear.
  • The human face is made up of 14 bones.
  • The chances of getting a cavity is higher if candy is eaten slowly throughout the day compared to eating it all at once and then brushing your teeth.
  • If an identical twin grows up without having a certain tooth, the other twin will most likely also grow up with that tooth missing.
  • Humans are born with 300 bones in their body, however when a person reaches adulthood they only have 206 bones. This occurs because many of them join together to make a single bone.
  • Gardening is said to be one of the best exercises for maintaining healthy bones.
  • Enamel is hardest substance in the human body.
  • Although the outsides of a bone are hard, they are generally light and soft inside. They are about 75% water.
  • Adult human bones account for 14% of the body's total weight.
  • In 2000 babies are born with a tooth that is already visible.
  • Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!
  • Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete.
  • The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it's hollow!                            
Blood Facts
  • Two million red blood cells die every second.
  • There are approximately 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.
  • Seven percent of a humans body weight is made up of blood.
  • In the early nineteenth century some advertisements claimed that riding the carousel was good for the circulation of blood.
  • Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys.
  • By donating just one pint of blood, four lives can be saved.
  • Blood is such a good stain that Native Americans used it for paint.
  • The kidneys filter over 400 gallons of blood each day.
  • The average life span of a single red blood cell is 120 days.
  • Blood accounts for about 8% of a human's body weight.
  • A woman has approximately 4.5 liters of blood in her body, while men have 5.6 liters.
  • Your blood takes a very long trip through your body. If you could stretch out all of a human's blood vessels, they would be about 60,000 miles long. That's enough to go around the world twice.
  • Half your body’s red blood cells are replaced every seven days.
  • If all the blood vessels in your body were laid end to end, they would reach about 60,000 miles.
Eyes Facts
  • We should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.
  • Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.
  • Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.
  • Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don't want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes. We don't want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!
  • The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.
  • The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.
  • The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.
  • The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.
  • The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.
  • The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.
  • The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.
  • Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.
  • Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.
  • People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.
  • Men are able to read fine print better than women can.
  • In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.
  • All babies are colour blind when they are born.
  • A human eyeball weighs an ounce.
  • If the lens in our eye doesn't work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye's own lens to help us see better.
  • Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.
  • The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.
  • The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.
  • Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.
  • The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.
  • It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
  • The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.
  • Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the "retina." On the retina are cells called "rods" and "cones." These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.
  • Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.
  • Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the "conjunctiva."
  • The white part of our eye is called the "sclera." At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the "cornea."
  • Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the "iris." Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.
  • Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the "pupil." It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.
  • Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
Mouth Facts
  • In a month, a fingernail grows an eighth of an inch.
  • People whose mouth has a narrow roof are more likely to snore. This is because they have less oxygen going through their nose.
  • While sleeping, one man in eight snores, and one in ten grinds his teeth.
  • It takes food seven seconds to go from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus.
Tongue Facts
  • Close to fifty percent of the bacteria in the mouth lives on the surface of our tongue.
  • There are approximately 9,000 taste buds on the tongue.
  • Your tongue has 3,000 taste buds.
  • 85% of the population can curl their tongue into a tube.                                                             
Hair Facts
  • On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.
  • On average, a hair strand's life span is five and a half years.
  • On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.
  • Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.
  • In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.
  • Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.
  • Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.
  • The average human head weighs about eight pounds.
  • The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.
  • The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing "melanin" which gives the hair colour.
  • The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.
  • The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.
  • The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.
  • The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.
  • The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
  • Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.
  • Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.
  • Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.
  • The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.
  • A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.
  • Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.
  • Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man's hair product.
  • Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.
  • A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.
  • A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.
Diseases Facts
  • People that use mobile phones are 2.5 time more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain that are adjacent to the ear they use to talk on the mobile phone.
  • Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress.
  • Over 436,000 U.S. Troops were exposed to depleted uranium during the first Gulf war.
  • On average, 90% of the people that have the disease Lupus are female.
  • Many cancer patients that are treated with chemotherapy lose their hair. For some when the hair grows back, it can grow back a different colour, or be curly or straight.
  • Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for about 180,000 deaths per year.
  • Chances of a women getting breast cancer are increased by excessive use of alcohol.
  • A popular superstition is that if you put a piece of bread in a baby's crib, it will keep away diseases.
  • A person that is struck by lightning has a greater chance of developing motor neurons disease.
  • Every year in the U.S., there are 178,000 new cases of lung cancer.
  • Every three minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Asthma affects one in fifteen children under the age of eighteen.
  • Every eleven minutes in the U.S., a woman dies of breast cancer.
  • Due to eating habits in the USA, one in three children born in the year 2000 have a chance of getting type II diabetes.
  • The oldest known disease in the world is leprosy.
  • The number one cause of rabies in the United States are bats.
  • Coughing can cause air to move through your windpipe faster than the speed of sound — over a thousand feet per second!
  • A headache and inflammatory pain can be reduced by eating 20 tart cherries.
  • The incidents of immune system diseases has increased over 200% in the last five years.
  • The flu pandemic of 1918 killed over 20 million people.
  • Each year in America there are about 300,000 deaths that can be attributed to obesity.
  • Every three days a human stomach gets a new lining.
  • The first owner of the Marlboro Company, Wayne McLaren, died of lung cancer.
  • Soldiers disease is a term for morphine addiction. The Civil War produced over 400,000 morphine addicts.
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by ticks.
  • A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet.
  • A study indicates that smokers are likely to die on average six and a half years earlier than non-smokers.
  • A person who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day will on average lose two teeth every ten years.
  • Lady Peseshet is known to be the world's first known female physician. She practiced during the time of the pyramids, which was the fourth dynasty.
  • The DNA of humans is closer to a rat than a cat.
  • Teenage suicide is the second cause of death in the state of Wisconsin.
  • Teenage cosmetic surgeries nearly doubled in the USA between 1996 and 1998.
  • Studies indicate that weightlifters working out in blue gyms can handle heavier weights.
  • Studies indicate that listening to music is good for digestion.
  • Studies indicate that epileptic patients that listen to Mozart's Piano Sonata can dramatically decrease their chance of a seizure.
  • Lack of sleep can affect your immune system and reduce your ability to fight infections.
  • It takes about three hours for food to be broken down in the human stomach.
  • Over 40 million Americans have chronic bad breath.
  • Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes.
  • Fourteen people die each day from asthma in the United States.
  • Every day the human stomach produces about 2 liters of hydrochloric acid.
  • Nearly half of all Americans suffer from symptoms of burnout.In humans, the epidermal layer of skin, which consists of many layers of skin regenerates every 27 days.
  • Native Americans used to use pumpkin seeds for medicine.
  • In ancient Egypt, doctors used jolts from the electric catfish to reduce the pain of arthritis.
  • The lining of the a person's stomach is replaced every 36 hours.
  • The purpose of tonsils is to destroy foreign substances that are swallowed or breathed in.
  • In the United States, poisoning is the fourth leading cause of death among children.
  • The risk of cardiovascular disease is twice as high in women that snore regularly compared to women who do not snore.
  • The stomach of an adult can hold 1.5 liters of material.
  • The stomach can break down goat's milk faster than the milk of a cow.
  • The smoke that is produced by a fire kills more people than a burn does because of carbon monoxide and other dangerous gases.
  • It has been medically been proven that laughter is an effective pain killer.
  • Influenza caused over twenty-one million deaths in 1918.
  • In a year, there are 60,000 trampoline injuries that occur in the U.S.
  • Even if you eat food standing on your head, the food will still end up in your stomach.
  • A person infected with the SARS virus, has a 95-98% chance of recovery.
  • 3000 children die every day in Africa because of malaria.                                                          
Pregnancy Facts
  • The world's first test tube twins are Stephen and Amanda Mays born June 5, 1981.
  • Some people drink the urine of pregnant women to build up their immune system.
  • The first known contraceptive was crocodile dung, used by Egyptians in 2000 B.C.
  • Every day, over 1,300 babies are born prematurely in the USA.
  • During pregnancy, the average woman's uterus expands up to five hundred times its normal size.
  • Changing a cat's litter box can be dangerous to pregnant women, as cat feces sometimes carry a parasite that can cause harm to the developing baby.
  • A pregnant woman's dental health can affect her unborn child.
  • May babies are on avearge 200 grams heavier than babies born in other months.
  • When a women is pregnant, her senses are all heightened.
  • Studies show that couples that smoke during the time of conception have a higher chance of having a girl compared to couples that do not smoke.
Sex Facts
  • There are approximately 100 million acts of sexual intercourse each day.
  • The sperm count of an average American male compared to thirty years ago is down thirty percent.
    An adult esophagus can range from 10 to 14 inches in length and is one inch in diameter.
  • Men sweat more than women. This is because women can better regulate the amount of water they lose.
  • The average amount of time spent kissing for a person in a lifetime is 20,160 minutes.
  • The average adult has approximately six pounds of skin.
  • Infants spend more time dreaming than adults do.
  • In one day, adult lungs move about 10,000 liters of air.
  • The condom made originally of linen was invented in the early 1500's. Casanova, the womanizer, used linen condoms.
  • Sex burns about 70-120 calories for a 130 pound woman, and 77 to 155 calories for a 170 pound man every hour.
  • Impotence is grounds for divorce in 26 U.S. states.
  • There are approximately 45 billion fat cells in an average adult.
  • Kissing can aid in reducing tooth decay. This is because the extra saliva helps in keeping the mouth clean.
  • During the female orgasm, endorphines are released, which are powerful painkillers. So headaches are in fact a bad excuse not to have sex.
  • During World War II, condoms were used to cover rifle barrels from being damaged by salt water as the soldiers swam to shore.
  • According to psychologists, the shoe and the foot are the most common sources of sexual fetishism in Western society.
  • A kiss for one minute can burn 26.                                                                                                  
Other Human Body Facts
  • The Gastric Flu can cause projectile vomiting.
  • The Dutch people are known to be the tallest people in Europe.
  • Studies have shown that the scent of Rosemary can help in better mental performance and make individuals feel more alert.
  • Some brands of toothpaste contain glycerin or glycerol, which is also an ingredient in antifreeze.
  • Soaking beans for twelve hours in water before they are cooked can reduce flatulence caused by beans.
  • Scientists say that babies that are breastfed are more likely to be slimmer as adults than those that are not breastfed.
  • Scientists have determined that having guilty feelings may actually damage your immune system
    Research has indicated that approximately eleven minutes are cut off the life of an average male smoker from each cigarette smoked.
  • People have the tendency to chew the food on the side that they most often use their hand.
  • Over 600,000 people died as a result of the Spanish influenza epidemic.
  • Only one out of every three people wash their hands when leaving a public bathroom.
  • One ragweed plant can release as many as a million grains of pollen in one day.
  • One out of 20 people have an extra rib.
  • One average, men spend 60 hours a year shaving.
  • On average, falling asleep while driving results in 550 accidents per day in the United States.
  • On average, a person has two million sweat glands.
  • On average, Americans spend 33% of their life sleeping.
  • On average a person passes gas 14 times a day.
  • On average 1,668 gallons of water are used by each person in the United States daily.
  • Nerve impulses for muscle position travel at a speed of up to 390 feet per second.
  • Nerve cells can travel as fast as 120 meters per second.
  • Mummy powder was once thought to be a cure for all remedies. English men used to carry the powder with them in a tiny bag wherever they went.
  • Men in their early twenties shave an average of four times a week.
  • Medical research has found substances in mistletoe that can slow down tumor growth.
  • Medical reports show that about 18% of the population are prone to sleepwalking.
  • Manicuring the nails has been done by people for more than 4,000 years.
  • Left-handed people are better at sports that require good spatial judgment and fast reaction, compared to right-handed individuals.
  • Ironically, when doctors in Los Angeles, California went on strike in 1976, the daily number of deaths in the city dropped 18%.
  • In the United States, 8.5 million cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures were done in the year 2001.
  • People with darker skin will not wrinkle as fast as people with lighter skin.
  • People with allergies can lower allergy reactions by laughing.
  • People who meet their calcium need reduce their risk of developing kidney stones.
  • People that smoke have 10 times as many wrinkles as a person that does not smoke.
  • People still cut the cheese shortly after death.
  • People over the age of fifty will start to lose their dislike for foods that taste bitter.
  • People of Ancient China believed that swinging your arms could cure a headache.
  • The average weight of a newborn baby is 7 lbs. 6 oz. For a triplet baby it is 3 lbs. 12 oz.
  • The average person spends two weeks of their life kissing.
  • The average person falls asleep in about 12 to 14 minutes.
  • There are approximately one hundred million people in the United States that have a chronic illness.
  • There are approximately 60 muscles in the face.
  • There are 50% more males that are left handed compared to females.
  • There are 400 species of bacteria in the human colon.
  • There are 10 million bacteria at the place where you rest your hands at a desk.
  • In a lifetime, an average human produces 10,000 gallons of saliva.
  • In a lifetime, an average driver will release approximately 912 pints of wind inside a car.
  • In Canada, men are three times more likely than women to have seen a doctor in the last year.
  • In 1832, in Paisley, Scotland the first municipal water filtration works was opened.
  • Humans breathe in and out approximately one litre of air in ten seconds.
  • Girls have more tastebud than boys.
  • From the age of thirty, humans gradually begin to shrink in size.
  • Flu shots only work about 70% of the time.
  • Gases that build up in your large intestine cause flatulence. It usually takes about 30 to 45 minutes for these gases to pass through your system.
  • Fat is important for the development of children and normal growth.
  • Every day, the average person swallows about a quart of snot.
  • Eighty percent of 10 year old girls in the USA go on a diet.
  • Air is passed through the nose at a speed of 100 miles per hour when a person sneezes.
  • About twenty-five percent of the population sneeze when they are exposed to light.
  • A yawn usually lasts for approximately six seconds.
  • Children who are breast fed tend to have an IQ seven points higher than children who are not.
  • Children grow faster in the springtime than any other season during the year.
  • Eating chocolate three times a month helps people live longer as opposed to people who overeat chocolate or do not eat chocolate at all.
  • Constipation is caused when too much water is absorbed in the large intestine and poops become dry.
  • A ear trumpet was used before the hearing aid was invented by people who had difficulty hearing.
  • The average human dream lasts only 2 to 3 seconds.
  • The average person has at least seven dreams a night.
  • Bile produced by the liver is responsible for making your feces a brownish, green colour.
  • It takes more muscles to frown than it does to smile.
  • By the time you are 70 you will have easily drunk over 12,000 gallons of water.
  • A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for approximately sixty-nine years.
  • The average person walks the equivalent of twice around the world in a lifetime.
  • The average person laughs about 15 times a day.
  • The vocabulary of the average person consists of 5,000 to 6,000 words.
  • About 10% of the world's population is left-handed.


The East India Company had established its control over almost all parts of India by the middle of the 19th century. There were numerous risings in the first hundred years of British rule in India. They were, however, local and isolated in character. Some of them were led by the nobility who were refusing to accept the changing patterns of the time and wanted the past to be restored. But the risings developed a tradition of resistance offoreign rule, culminating in the 1857 revolt.
The Revolt of 1857, which was called a Sepoy Mutiny by British historians and their imitators in India but described as "the First War of Indian Independence" by many Indian historians, shook the British authority in India from its very foundations.
The Revolt of 1857, an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule, had begun. The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of Bahadurshah as the Emperor of Hindustan are a positive meaning to the Revolt and provided a rallying point for the rebels by recalling the past glory of the imperial city.
On May 10, 1857, soldiers at Meerut refused to touch the new Enfield rifle cartridges. The soldiers along with other group of civilians, went on a rampage shouting 'Maro Firangi Ko'. They broke open jails, murdered European men and women, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi. The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning in Delhi was a'signal to the local soldiers, who in turn revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 80-year old Bahadurshah Zafar, as Emperor of India.
 Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the Revolt spread to the different parts of the country. Kanpur, Lucknow, Benaras,  Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagdishpur and Jhansi. In the absence of any leader from their own ranks, the insurgents turned to the traditional leaders of Indian society. At Kanpur, NanaSaheb, the adopted son of last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, led the forces. Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi, Begum Hazrat Mahal in Lucknow and .Khan Bahadur in Bareilly were in command. However, apart from a commonly shared hatred for alien rule, the rebels had no political perspective or a definite vision of the future. They were all prisoners of their own past, fighting primarily to regain their lost privileges. Unsurprisingly, they proved incapable of ushering in a new political order.
Government of India Act 1858
Queen Victoria issued a proclamation on November 1, 1858, placing India under direct government of the Crown, whereby:
(a) A viceroy was appointed in India
(b) Princes were given the right to adopt a son (abolition of Doctrine of Lapse)
(c) Treaties were honoured
(d) Religious freedom was restored and equality treatment promised to Indians
 The Proclamation was called the 'Magna Carta of Indian Liberty'. The British rule in India was strongest between 1858 and 1905. The British also started treating India as its most precious possession and their rule over India seemed set to continue for centuries to come. Because of various subjective and objective factors which came into existence during this era, the feeling of nationalism in Indians started and grow.
Indian National Congress (1885)
Although the British succeeded in suppressing the 1857 Revolt, they could not stop the growth of political awareness in India. The Indian National Congress was founded in December 1885. It was the visible embodiment of the national awakening in the country. Its founder was an Englishman, Allan Octavian Hume, a retired member of the Indian Civil Service. The Indian leaders, who cooperated with Hume in launching the Congress, were patriots of high character. The first President of the Congress was W.C. Bannerjee. 
The aims of the Congress were: promotion of friendship and cooperation amongst the nationalist political workers from the different parts of the country; the eradication of racial, creed or provincial prejudices and promotion of national unity; formulation of popular demands and their presentation before the Government; and, most important of all, the training and organisation of public opinion in the country.
Partition of Bengal (1905)
On December 30, 1898, Lord Curzon took over as the new Viceroy of India. The partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16, 1905, through a Royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating a new province of East Bengal, which later on became East Pakistan and present day Bangladesh. The government explained that it was done to stimu­late growth of underdeveloped eastern region of the Bengal. But, actually, the main objective was to 'Divide and Rule' the most advanced region of the country at that time.

Muslim League (1906)
In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leader­ship of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimul­lab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded special safegurds for its community and a separate elec­torates of Muslims. This led to communal differences between Hindus and Muslims.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)
The Swadeshi movement has its genesis in the anti-partition move­ment which was started to oppose the British decision to divide Bengal. With the start of the Swadeshi movement at the turn of the century, the Indian National Movement took a major leap forward.
The Indian National Congress took up the Swadeshi call in Benaras Session, 1905, presided over by G.K. Gokhale, supported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement of Bengal, Militant Nationalism spearheaded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh was, however, in favour of extending the movement of the rest of India and carrying it beyond the programme of just Swadeshi and boycott of goods to full-fledged political mass struggle.
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909 during the period when Lord Minto was the Governor­General of India. The reforms envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims besides other constitutional measures. The government thereby sought to create a rift within the Congress on the one hand by winning the support of the moderates, and on the other, to win favour of Muslims against Bindus. To achieve the latter objective, the reforms introduced the system of separate electorates under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates. This was done to encourage the notion that the political, economic and cultural interests of Hindus and Muslims were separate and not common. Indian political leaders were however dissatisfied by these reforms.
Lucknow Pact (1916)
An important step forward in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity was the Lucknow Pact 1916. Anti­British feelings were generated among the Muslims following a war between Britain and Turkey which opened way for Congress and Mus­lim League unity. Both the Con­gress and the Muslim League held sessions at Lucknow in 1916 and concluded the famous Lucknow Pact. The Congress accepted the separate electorates, and both organizations jointly demanded dominion status for the country.
 Hindu-Muslim unity weakened the British attitude and forced the government to announce its future policy. In 1916 a British policy was announced whereby association of Indians was increased and there was to be a gradual development of local self-governing institutions.
Home Rule Movement (1915­-1916)
Dr. Annie Besant, inspired by the Irish rebellion, started a Home Rule Movement in India in September 1916. The movement spread rapidly and branches of the Rome Rule League were established all over India. Bal Gangadhar Tilak wholeheartedly supported this movement. Rejoined forces with Dr. Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this programme.

The Gandhian Era (1918-1947)
Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Indian political scene from 1918­1947. This period of the Indian National Congress is also referred to as the Gandhian Era. It was the most
intense and eventful phase of India's freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi provided the leadership of the highest order and his philosophy of non-violent Satyagraha became the most potent weapon to drive out .the British from the Indian soil.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
The Caliph, Sultan of Turkey, was looked upon by the Muslims as their religious head. During the First World War, when the safety and the welfare of Turkey were threatened by the British thereby weakening the Caliph's position, Indian Muslims adopted an aggressive anti-British attitude. The two brothers, Mohammed Ah and Shaukat Ali launched an anti­British movement in 1920-the Khilafat Movement for the restoration.

The Rowlatt Act (1919)
While trying to appease Indians, the British Government was following a policy of repression. Throughout the First World War, repression of freedom fighters had continued. The revolutionaries had been hunted down, hanged or im­prisoned. The Government now decided to arm itself with more powers in order to suppress the freedom fighters. In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act. This Act authorised the government to detain any person without trial. The Rowlatt Act came like a sudden blow. The Indians had been promised extension of democracy during the war. They felt humiliated and were filled with anger when they found that their civil liberties were going to be curtailed still further. Unrest gripped the country and a powerful agitation against the Act started. During this agitation, Gandhiji took command of the nationalist movement. March and April 1919 witnessed a remarkable political awakening in the country. There were hartals, strikes and demonstrations at various places. The slogans of Hindu-Muslim unity filled the air.

Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (1919)
The Government was bent on suppressing the mass agitation. In Bombay; Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Delhi and at other places demonstrators were lathi-charged and fired upon. Gandhiji gave a call for a general hartal on April 6, 1919. The call was responded to with great enthusiasm. The Government decided to resort to repression to suppress the agitation. At this time the British Government committed one of the worst political crimes in modem history. An unarmed but a large crowd had gathered in Jallianwalla Bagh, Amritsar (Punjab) on April, 13, 1919 for a meeting. General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on them without warning. This massacre of unarmed people (hundreds died and thousands were wounded) in an enclosed place from which there was no exit, was fol­lowed by a reign of terror in several districts under martial law.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)
With the Congress support of the Khilafat movement, Hindu-Muslim unity was achieved which encouraged Gandhiji to launch his non-violent, non-cooperation movement. At the Calcutta Session in September 1920, the Congress resolved in favour of the non-violent, non-cooperation movement and defined Swaraj as its ultimate aim. The movement envisaged: (i) Surrender of titles and honorary officers; (ii) Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies; (iii) Refusal to attend government darbars and official functions and boycott of British courts by the lawyers; (iv) Refusal of general public to offer themselves for military and other government jobs, and boycott of foreign goods, etc.
 The non-cooperation movement also saw picketing of shops selling foreign cloth and boycott of the foreign cloth by the followers of Gandhiji.
Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)
The Congress session held at Ahmedabad in December 1921 decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement while reiterating its stand on the non-violent, non­cooperation movement of which Gandhiji was appointed the leader. Before Gandhiji could launch the Civil Disobedience Movement, a mob of countrymen at Chauri Chaura, a place near Gorakhpur in D.P., clashed with the police which opened fire. In retaliation the mob burnt the police-station and killed 22 policemen. This compelled Gandhiji to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement on February 12, 1922.
 Despite this Gandhiji was arrested and sentenced to six years imprisonment. The Chauri Chaura incident convinced Gandhiji that the nation was not yet ready for the mass-dis6bedience and he prevailed upon Congress Working Committee in Bardoli on February 12, 1922 to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Swaraj Party (1922)
Gandhiji's decision to call off the agitation caused frustration among masses. His decision came in for severe criticism from his colleagues like Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and N.C. Kelkar, who organized the Swaraj Party. The foundations of the 'Swaraj Party' were laid on January 1, 1923, as the 'Congress­Khilafat-Swarajya Patty'. It proposed then an alternative programme of diverting the movement from widespread civil disobedience programme to restrictive one which would encourage its member to enter into legislative councils (established under Montford Reforms of 1919) by contesting elections in order to wreck the legislature from within and to use moral pressure to compel the authority to concede to the popular demand for self-government.

Simon Commission (1927)
Under the 1919 Act, a statutory commission was to be appointed by the British Government at the end of ten years from the passing of the Act to inquire into the working of the system of government in the country and to recommend further reforms. Thus the commission was scheduled to be appointed in 1929. It was ac­tually appointed two years earlier in 1927. The commission consisted of seven members of the British Parliament. It was headed by Sir John Simon. As all its members were British, the Congress decided to boycott it. The Commission arrived in India in Feb. 1928. It was greeted with black flags and hostile demonstrations everywhere it went. In one such demonstration at Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in a wanton police lathi-charge on the demonstrators. Lalaji died soon after from wounds received during the demonstration.

Dandi March (1930)
Also called the 'Salt Satyagraha'. To achieve the goal of complete independence, Gandhiji launched another civil disobedience movement. Along with 79 followers, Gandhiji started his famous march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 20,1930, for the small village Dandi to break the Salt Law. While Gandhiji was marching to Dandi, Congress leaders and workers had been busy at various levels with the hard organizational tasks of enrolling volunteers and members, forming grassroot Congress Committees, collecting funds, and touring villages and towns to spread nationalist messages.
 On reaching the seashore on April 6, 1930, he broke the Salt Law by picking up salt from the seashore. By picking a handful of salt, Gandhiji inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement, a movement that was to remain unsurpassed in the history of the Indian National Movement for the countrywide mass participation it unleashed. The movement became so powerful that it sparked off partriotism even among the Indian soldiers in the Army. The Garhwal soldiers refused to fire on the people at Peshawar.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)
Early in 1931 two moderate statesmen, Sapru and Jayakar, initiated efforts to bring about rapprochement between Gandhiji and the government. Six meetings with Viceroy Lord Irwin finally led to the signing of a pact between the two on March 5, 1931, whereby the Congress called off the movement and agreed to join the Second Round Table Conference. The terms of the agreement included the immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted for violence, the remission of all fines not yet collected, the return of confiscated land not yet sold to third parties, and lenient treatment of all the government officials who had resigned.
 Gandhiji and other leaders were released from jail as Irwin agreed to release most political prisoners and to return the properties that had been seized by the governments. The government also conceded the right to make the salt for consumption of villages along the coast, and also the right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing. The Congress on its part, agreed to discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement and to participate in the next Round Table Conference.
The Government of India Act, 1935
The Simon Commission report submitted in 1930 formed the basis for the Government of India Act 1935. The new Government of India Act received the royal assent on August 4, 1935.
 The Act continued and extended all the existing features of the Indian constitution. Popular representation, which went back to 1892, dyarchy and ministerial responsibility, which dated from 1921, provincial autonomy, whose chequered history went back to eighteenth century presidencies, communal representation, which first received recognition in 1909, and the safeguards devised in 1919, were all continued and in most cases extended. But in addition there were certain new principles intro­duced. It provided for a federal type of government. Thus, the act:
(a) Introduced provincial autonomy
(b) Abolished dyarchy in provinces I
(c) Made ministers responsible to the legislative and federation at the centre
 The Act of 1935 was condemned by nearly all sections of Indian public opinion and was unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Congress demanded instead, the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for an independent India.
Quit India Movement (1942)
On August 8, 1942, the Congress in its meeting at Bombay passed a resolution known as 'Quit India' resolution, whereby Gandhiji asked the British to quit India and gave a call for 'Do or die' to his countrymen. On August 9, 1942, Gandhiji was arrested but the other leaders continued the revolutionary struggle. Violence spread throughout the country, several government officers were destroyed and damaged, telegraph wires were cut and communication paralyzed. The movement was, however, crushed by the government.
Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The British Prime Minister, Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission would visit India to make recommendations regarding constitutional reforms to be introduced in India. The Cabinet Mission which constituted of Lord Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander visited India and met the representatives of different political parties but a satisfactory solution to the constitutional difficulties could not be found. The Mission envisaged the establishment of a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution as well as an interim government. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6, 1946, while maintaining its rights of striving for a separate Muslim state. The Congress also partially accepted the plan.
Interim Government (1946)
On September 2, 1946, an inter­im government was formed. Congress members led by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru joined it but the Muslim League did not as it withdrew its earlier acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946)
The Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946, and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. The Muslim League did not join the Assembly.

Mountbatten Plan (1947)
In March 1947, Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell. He announced his plan on June 3, 1947. It offered a key to the political and constitutional deadlock created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the Constituent Assembly formed to frame the Constitution of India. Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain maximum unity. The country would be partitioned but so would be Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would meet both the Congress and the League's position to some extent. The League's position on Pakistan was conceded in that it would be created, but the Congress position on unity would be taken into account to make Pakistan as small as possible. He laid down detailed principles for the partition of the country and speedy transfer of political powers in the form of dominion status to the newly formed dominions of India and Pakistan. Its acceptance by the Congress and the Muslim' League resulted in the birth of Pakistan.

 The Indian Independence Act, 1947
The Bill containing the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947, was introduced in the British Parliament and passed as the Indian Independence Act,
1947. The Act laid down detailed measures for the partition of India and speedy transfer of political powers to the new government of India and Pakistan.
 Partition of India (1947)
In accordance with the Indian Independence Act, 1947, India was partitioned on August 15, 1947 into India and Pakistan. The Act made India and Pakistan independent dominions. Bloodshed and violence marked the exodus of refugees. The state of Kashmir acceded to the Indian Union, after the raiders were helped by Pakistan, in October 1947. Lord Mountbatten was appointed the Governor-General of free1ndia and M.A. Jinnah the first Governor-General of Pakistan.