Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Expected/Important Topics for the 2010 UPSC Civil Services Main Examination


Current Affairs ‐ Topics:

1. Child Marriages in India and Society’s response
2. Kangaroo Courts in India and Honour Killing
3. Leh Cloudburst ‐ Is it Nature’s Fury?
4. Caste‐based Census in India – the Reality and Pitfalls
5. Mumbai Oil Spill and its effect on Environment
6. Water Dispute between India and Pakistan – Will it trigger first Water War?
7. Access to clean water and sanitation is now a Human Right
8. Babhali Barrage row and rift between Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
9. Bosnia Serbia Conflict, Genocide and the Present Stage
10. G-8 Countries and the 2010 Summit
11. TN man designed Indian Rupee symbol ‐ Rupee joins Elite Club
12. Foot Ball World Cup – History, Rules and 1930 to 2010 Winners
13. World‐class Green Terminal T3 opened at IGI Airport, New Delhi
14. Criteria for Classical Language Status
15. To go from mediocrity to excellence in Legal Education in India
16. Parliamentary Procedures of India – Part 1
17. Parliamentary Procedures of India – Part 2
18. Where there is a will there is a way – Youngest climbers of Mt Everest
19. World Classical Tamil Conference, 2010
20. The good, bad and ugly story of IPL Twenty20
21. 2010 Commonwealth Games in India
22. Unique Identification Authority of India ‐ UIDAI (Aadhaar)
23. Governors can’t be removed at Centre’s whims
24. Entry of Foreign Universities in India
25. Indian Cryogenic Engine Failure
26. Mullaperiyar Dam Controversy
27. Amazing New Tamil Nadu Assembly’s Green Building
28. Telengana Movement – root cause and the present scenario
29. Discuss the Myth and Reality of Human Rights
30. Discuss how to improve Air Safety in India.
31. Discuss the reason for existence of naxalism in India and present your views on using Military Forces.
32. Write a brief not on National Commission for judicial Accountability.
33. What will be the impact of GST make on State Financial autonomy?
34. Aam Admi Bhima Yojana.
35. India’s stand on Climate Change and its impact on India
36. Indian Ocean Naval Symposium.
37. UN’s new Human Development Index and India’s Poverty
38. Discuss the Pros & cons of Nuclear Liability Bill.
39. Inadequacy of Laws to curb Honor killing in India
40. Food Inflation and impacts; causes for food inflation; measures taken both Monetary & Fiscal measures; steps need to be taken.
41. Child Sex ratio in India
42. What is inclusive growth? What steps taken by India to achieve this?
43. Unit Linked Insurance plans Issue
44. International security challenges in India
45. Rabindranath Tagore’s contribution to Indian Art and Literature (150th
46. Discuss the steps need to be taken for controlling illegal mining in India
47. Inter State dispute (river water sharing border issue between Karnataka
and Maharashtra) – how for its affects the national integrity?
48. Discuss the steps to be taken to control money for voting and paid news.
49. How for Right to information ensure accountability in India?
50. Women Reservation Bill‐ When will it come to reality?
51. Discuss the pro’s and cons of NREGA program in India
52. Discuss the benefits and problems in unique identification number.
53. How far 2010 census is different from the past and discuss the limitation in Census enumeration
54. Kheer Bhiwani temple
55. Write a brief notes on National Academic Depository Bill 2010.
56. India joins select club to counter financial frauds
57. Commercial benches in High Courts – new proposals
58. Discuss the steps to increase Coastal security in India
59. Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
60. The opening of Foreign University is necessary for the India’s growth – Discuss.
61. National Urban Health Mission
62. Measures to achieve 4% growth in Agriculture
63. Do you think SEZ & tax concession policies are pro‐rich?
64. Current Issues
a. Land acquisition policy
b. Jaithapur nuclear plants site
c. POSCO Project in Orissa and the Current Scenario
d. Vedanta bauxite mining
e. Reliance mega power project in Maharashtra

Social Issues in India

1. The Evil of Honour Killing in India and the latest trend
2. Plan for National Commission for Higher Education
3. Bill proposed to allow adoption by Single Woman
4. Move to get State Civil Service Officers for IAS
5. How to eliminate child labour
6. Women’s Reservation Bill 2010 – Discuss it in detail
7. Rehabilitation of the Disabled
8. Globalization and rising inequalities
9. Terrorism
10. Regionalism
11. Privatization of higher education in India
12. Problems in Universalisation of Primary education
13. “Mass media creates an illusionary world” comment
14. The Great Poverty debate in India
15. Rising formers suicides
16. Evaluation of SC/ST (prevention of Atrocities) Act
17. The problem of the Aged.

Polity – Topics

1. Bhopal Gas Leakage Tragedy and its Tragic Verdict
2. Illegal Mining
3. Nuclear Liability
4. IPL Scam
5. Capital Punishment
6. Continuing Dalit suppression
7. Bt. Brinjal and the Controversy
8. Social Audit & NREGA
9. India Budget 2010
10. St. Rathore Issue
11. Judges Asset Case and the extent of use of RTI
12. Recent Fake Encounter Cases in India
13. GST
14. RTE

Economic Topics

1. India plays a crucial role in kick‐starting the global economy
2. Recession in Greece and its effect on World Economy
3. US recession and its effect on Indian economy
4. Direct Tax Code
5. India – China Economic Relation
6. Reforms as well as GST
7. Debt management in India
8. Inflation: Causes, trends, management Deregulation of petrol and diesel prices
9. Tendulkar committee report and BPL controversy
10. FDI in defense: should it be increased or not?
11. Pattern of economic recovery
12. Fertilizer subsidy and integrated nutrient management
13. Subsidies as an essential evil
14. Fiscal deficit: ways to manage
15. Freeing up Yuan and its effected on global trade
16. Second Green Revolution
17. G‐20 outcome and impact
18. Methods for financial inclusion 1. Biometric ATMs 2 Mobile banking
19. Infrastructure funding – Parekh Committee recommendation
20. Anti‐counterfeiting Trade Agreement (important as the developed
nations are evolving new frame work to replace TRPIS and the
developing countries have serious objections to the same)
21. Capital inflow control is the time for Tobin tax ripe in India
22. Euro debt crisis lessons for India
23. PSU disinvestment programme
24. From BPLR to base rate
25. Inflation management versus maintaining growth
26. G‐20 Meet at Canada
28. Mahartanas
29. Inclusive growth
30. Low carbon economy‐ Indian context
31. FII hot money and the concern for forex surge
32. Regulator or Regulations – the proposed FSDC‐ do we really need it
33. Microfinance and financial inclusion – the real growth
34. Low Carbon economy‐ Indian context
35. Does India need the IMF? Can the Asian biggies taken together develop
their own funding mechanism similar to the one developed by ASEAN =3 (the Chinag Mai initiative’s multilaterilasation)
36. Washington’s borrow and spend ways
37. Sovereign debt crisis
38. Money laundering bill is important after IPL
39. Carbon Budget
40. Rural business HUBS
41. Financial Action task force
42. Tobin Tax
43. Oil bonds
44. Non banking financial institutions roles and function
45. RBI’s 75th Anniversary last year what should be the role of Indian economy in new world order?
46. AEZ
47. Robin Hood tax
48. Austerity Vs stimulus
49. Curtailing overall public debt
50. China’s flexibility in Yuan
51. Debate on FDI

Geography – Topics

1. Monsoon Forest in India
2. Structure and Relief of Western Ghats
3. Impact of Geographical features over drainage pattern in peninsular India
4. Reason for existence of Thar Desert in India
5. Factors affecting Cycle of Erosion
6. Discuss the Geomorphological difference between Western Himalayas
and Eastern Himalayas
7. Discuss the Geographical Advantage of India by its location
8. Discuss the Climatological impact on India, if Himalaya is absent
9. Pre‐ Monsoon Showers
10. Soils in India are the product of Geographical and Non‐Geographical
factors ‐ Discuss
11. Indian Budget is Gamble of Indian Monsoon ‐ Discuss
12. Flood and Drought in India reflects nature and Character of the Monsoon ‐ Comment

International Issues

1. North Korea and South Korea – The stand off and fall outs
2. Iran’s Nuclear Programme and Sanctions by United Nations
3. The great China‐Pak nuclear nexus
4. The Alarming Oil Spill – Gulf of Mexico
5. European Union in a Changing World
6. China ‐ Taiwan Conflict
7. Probe Panel/Commission Report on 1985 bombing of Air India 182‐Kanishka in Canada
8. Brahmaputra River – Dispute between India and China
9. Failed Time Square Bomb Attack, 2010
10. Haiti earthquake, 2010
11. Indo ‐ China Border Dispute
12. 16th SAARC Summit in Thimpu ‐ Bhutan
13. Earthquake in Qinghai Province in China ‐ April 2010
14. Eyjafjallajokull ‐ Volcanic Eruption in South Iceland
15. The Indo‐U.S Nuclear Deal: What is there?
16. The 123 Indo‐Us Civilian Nuclear Deal
17. Obama and the US Health Care Reform
18. British Elections 2010
19. Global Warming – the Copenhagen Summit
20. China –Sri Lanka Relation and its implication
21. China – Pak Nuclear Pact
22. Iran’s Nuclear Programme
23. Recent Violence in Gaza
24. India – US‐Co –operation in the field of Science and Technology
25. Indo‐Russian Ties
26. Indo African Cooperation
27. India – Nepal relation
28. Korean crisis
29. Indo – EU Economic Cooperation
30. Water crisis in SAARC
31. India and ASEAN
32. India and SCO
33. India’s role in Afghanistan

History – Topics:

1. Subash Chandra Bose & INA
2. Gadhar Party & Nationalism
3. Swamy Vivekanandha
4. Champaran Sathyagraha
5. Anand Meth
6. Purna Swaraj Resolution
7. Dandhi March
8. Annie Besant
9. Subash Chandra Bose
10. Bring out the ideological basis of the moderate & extremist divide in
the Indian National Congress
11. Twenty eight months of congress Rule
12. What you understand about drain of wealth during British Regime ‐
examine it’s effect on Indian Economy? 19th century India was period
of Socio‐religious reformation ‐ comment.
13. Poverty and famine were the consequences of British Empire‐ Discuss
14. Who established Arya Sabha and what were its contributions?
15. State the causes for de‐industrialization of India in 19th Century?

Science Topics

1. New ‘Super Bug’ (New Delhi metallo‐betalactamase‐1) really spreads from India and Pakistan?
2. Pico satellite, named Studsat built by Students is a welcome success
3. Cloning – the Pros and Cons and the stage in India
4. Big Bang Theory ‐ The New Experiment
5. Earthquake – the ought‐to‐know Facts
6. BT Brinjal Controversy
7. Witricity –i.e. wireless electricity
3. Carbon sequestration
4. Synthetic Biology
5. Human Genome Project
6. Sub‐atomic particles and its importance
7. Sixth sense
8. LED Technology‐Its advantage over traditional technology.
9. Hydrogen Fuel
10. Biologically modified organisms and its role.
11. India’s achievement in space technology
12. Precision agriculture
13. Information Technology is the past, Bio Technology is the present and
Nano‐ Technology is the future – Discuss.
14. Non conventional energy resources are the future of India
15. Bio remediation
16. Cyber Crimes and the latest amendments in IT Act, 2000
17. Mission Clean Ganga Project.
18. National Action Plan for Climate Change
19. Green India approved
20. Solar mission approved
21. Water mission approved
22. Narco‐analysis, Polygraph and Brain‐mapping ‐ Does it affect the fundamental rights of the human being?

Other Topics:

1. Recent Maoist Problem and how to tackle it?
2. Discuss about India’s strategy on Nuclear Disarmament?
3. India can be considered as developed country with regarding to ‘Space Technology’ ‐ comment
4. Which of the Fundamental Rights mentioned under Part – III of the Constitution be suspended during the proclamation of emergency?
5. Which of the Directive Principles mentioned under Part –IV of our
Constitution has primacy over all the Fundamental Rights (part –III)?
6. Under what Grounds and Circumstances “proclamation of Emergency”
is proclaimed? What are the effects of such Proclamation?
7. “Regionalism is a threat to Nationalism” ‐ Analyse
8. Is globalization intensifying inequalities in society? Discuss
9. Universalisation of education is the key for a better India – Comment
10. What would be the impacts of realizing the women’s reservation Bill?
11. Suggest measures to rehabilitate the differently‐abled persons.
12. “Terrorism knows no border” Examine the Statement in the context of
growing terrorism today.
13. Critically evaluate the poverty alleviation schemes in Independent
India. Has it really benefited the poor?
14. Discuss the impact of 91st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003 on
“Tenth Schedule of the Constitution?
15. Positive & Negative impacts of Sethusamudram Project.
16. Discuss the role of Inland waterways
17. Poverty and famine were the consequences of British Empire – Discuss
18. Discuss the elements of frozen semen technology. What are “Embryo
Transfer” “transgenic animals” “DNA recombinant technique”?
19. Discuss about stem cells and its applications
20. Discuss about salient feature of Government of India Act. 1935
21. Discuss the importance of G‐20 meeting with regarding to recent
Global Financial melt down?
22. Universalization of Secondary Education
23. Treaty of Lisbon and its consequences.
24. India’s space odyssey
25. How foreign direct investments affecting economics sovereignty of India?
26. SEZ and Tax holiday
27. Singapore issue in WTO
28. Doha Round Talks
29. Communalism in India
30. Regional Political parties and National Integration.

Friday, September 24, 2010




Body Facts

  • In one day, a human sheds 10 billion skin flakes. This amounts to approximately two kilograms in a year.

  • Every square inch of the human body has about 19,000,000 skin cells.

  • Approximately 25% of all scald burns to children are from hot tap water and is associated with more deaths than with any other liquid.

  • Forty-one percent of women apply body and hand moisturizer at least three times a day.

  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.

  • The world record for the number of body piercing on one individual is 702, which is held by Canadian Brent Moffat.

  • The small intestine in the human body is about 2 inches around, and 22 feet long.

  • The human body makes anywhere from 1 to 3 pints of saliva every 24 hours.

  • The human body has approximately 37,000 miles of capillaries.

  • The aorta, which is largest artery located in the body, is about the diameter of a garden hose.

  • The adult human body requires about 88 pounds of oxygen daily.

  • It is very common for babies in New Zealand to sleep on sheepskins. This is to help them gain weight faster, and retain their body heat.

  • An average women has 17 square feet of skin. When a women is in her ninth month of pregnancy she has 18.5 square feet of skin.

  • The width of your armspan stretched out is the length of your whole body.

  • 41% of women apply body or hand moisturizer a minimum three times a day.

  • A human's small intestine is 6 meters long.

  • There are as many hairs per square inch on your body as a chimpanzee. You don't see all of them because most are too fine and light to be noticed.

  • Every hour one billion cells in the body must be replaced.

  • Dead cells in the body ultimately go to the kidneys for excretion.

  • By walking an extra 20 minutes every day, an average person will burn off seven pounds of body fat in an year.

  • The human body is 75% water.

Heart Facts

  • Women hearts beat faster than men.

  • Three years after a person quits smoking, there chance of having a heart attack is the same as someone who has never smoked before.

  • The human heart weighs less than a pound.

  • The human heart can create enough pressure that it could squirt blood at a distance of thirty feet.

  • The first open heart surgery was performed by Dr. Daniel Hall Williams in 1893.

  • Scientists have discovered that the longer the ring finger is in boys the less chance they have of having a heart attack.

  • The right lung of a human is larger than the left one. This is because of the space and placement of the heart.

  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.

  • Olive oil can help in lowering cholesterol levels and decreasing the risk of heart complications.

  • In a lifetime, the heart pumps about one million barrels of blood.

  • In 1967, the first successful heart transplant was performed in Cape Town, South Africa.

  • People that suffer from gum disease are twice as likely to have a stroke or heart attack.

  • Most heart attacks occur between the hours of 8 and 9 AM.

  • The human heart beast roughly 35 million times a year.

  • At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions.

Brain Facts

  • Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression than men in the United States.

  • The human brain has about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons.

  • From all the oxygen that a human breathes, twenty percent goes to the brain.

  • People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.

  • Once a human reaches the age of 35, he/she will start losing approximately 7,000 brain cells a day. The cells will never be replaced.

  • It is not possible to tickle yourself. The cerebellum, a part of the brain, warns the rest of the brain that you are about to tickle yourself. Since your brain knows this, it ignores the resulting sensation.

  • A women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder.

  • In America, the most common mental illness is Anxiety Disorders.

  • Your brain is 80% water.

  • Your brain is move active and thinks more at night than during the day.

Bones Facts

  • The smallest bone in the human body is the stapes bone which is located in the ear.

  • There are 54 bones in your hands including the wrists.

  • The only bone fully grown at birth is located in the ear.

  • The human face is made up of 14 bones.

  • The chances of getting a cavity is higher if candy is eaten slowly throughout the day compared to eating it all at once and then brushing your teeth.

  • If an identical twin grows up without having a certain tooth, the other twin will most likely also grow up with that tooth missing.

  • Humans are born with 300 bones in their body, however when a person reaches adulthood they only have 206 bones. This occurs because many of them join together to make a single bone.

  • Gardening is said to be one of the best exercises for maintaining healthy bones.

  • Enamel is hardest substance in the human body.

  • Although the outsides of a bone are hard, they are generally light and soft inside. They are about 75% water.

  • Adult human bones account for 14% of the body's total weight.

  • In 2000 babies are born with a tooth that is already visible.

  • Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!

  • Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete.

  • The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it's hollow!

Blood Facts

  • Two million red blood cells die every second.

  • There are approximately 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.

  • Seven percent of a humans body weight is made up of blood.

  • In the early nineteenth century some advertisements claimed that riding the carousel was good for the circulation of blood.

  • Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys.

  • By donating just one pint of blood, four lives can be saved.

  • Blood is such a good stain that Native Americans used it for paint.

  • The kidneys filter over 400 gallons of blood each day.

  • The average life span of a single red blood cell is 120 days.

  • Blood accounts for about 8% of a human's body weight.

  • A woman has approximately 4.5 liters of blood in her body, while men have 5.6 liters.

  • Your blood takes a very long trip through your body. If you could stretch out all of a human's blood vessels, they would be about 60,000 miles long. That's enough to go around the world twice.

  • Half your body’s red blood cells are replaced every seven days.

  • If all the blood vessels in your body were laid end to end, they would reach about 60,000 miles.

Eyes Facts

  • We should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.

  • Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.

  • Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.

  • Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don't want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes. We don't want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!

  • The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.

  • The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.

  • The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.

  • The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.

  • The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.

  • The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.

  • The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.

  • Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.

  • Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.

  • People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.

  • Men are able to read fine print better than women can.

  • In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.

  • All babies are colour blind when they are born.

  • A human eyeball weighs an ounce.

  • If the lens in our eye doesn't work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye's own lens to help us see better.

  • Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.

  • The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.

  • The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.

  • Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.

  • The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.

  • It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.

  • The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.

  • Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the "retina." On the retina are cells called "rods" and "cones." These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.

  • Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.

  • Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the "conjunctiva."

  • The white part of our eye is called the "sclera." At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the "cornea."

  • Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the "iris." Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.

  • Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the "pupil." It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.

  • Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!

Mouth Facts

  • In a month, a fingernail grows an eighth of an inch.

  • People whose mouth has a narrow roof are more likely to snore. This is because they have less oxygen going through their nose.

  • While sleeping, one man in eight snores, and one in ten grinds his teeth.

  • It takes food seven seconds to go from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus.

Tongue Facts

  • Close to fifty percent of the bacteria in the mouth lives on the surface of our tongue.

  • There are approximately 9,000 taste buds on the tongue.

  • Your tongue has 3,000 taste buds.

  • 85% of the population can curl their tongue into a tube.

Hair Facts

  • On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.

  • On average, a hair strand's life span is five and a half years.

  • On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.

  • Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.

  • In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.

  • Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.

  • Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.

  • The average human head weighs about eight pounds.

  • The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.

  • The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing "melanin" which gives the hair colour.

  • The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.

  • The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.

  • The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.

  • The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.

  • The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.

  • Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.

  • Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.

  • Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.

  • The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.

  • A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.

  • Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.

  • Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man's hair product.

  • Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.

  • A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.

  • A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.

Diseases Facts

  • People that use mobile phones are 2.5 time more likely to develop cancer in areas of the brain that are adjacent to the ear they use to talk on the mobile phone.

  • Over 90% of diseases are caused or complicated by stress.

  • Over 436,000 U.S. Troops were exposed to depleted uranium during the first Gulf war.

  • On average, 90% of the people that have the disease Lupus are female.

  • Many cancer patients that are treated with chemotherapy lose their hair. For some when the hair grows back, it can grow back a different colour, or be curly or straight.

  • Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for about 180,000 deaths per year.

  • Chances of a women getting breast cancer are increased by excessive use of alcohol.

  • A popular superstition is that if you put a piece of bread in a baby's crib, it will keep away diseases.

  • A person that is struck by lightning has a greater chance of developing motor neurons disease.

  • Every year in the U.S., there are 178,000 new cases of lung cancer.

  • Every three minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer.

  • Asthma affects one in fifteen children under the age of eighteen.

  • Every eleven minutes in the U.S., a woman dies of breast cancer.

  • Due to eating habits in the USA, one in three children born in the year 2000 have a chance of getting type II diabetes.

  • The oldest known disease in the world is leprosy.

  • The number one cause of rabies in the United States are bats.

  • Coughing can cause air to move through your windpipe faster than the speed of sound — over a thousand feet per second!

  • A headache and inflammatory pain can be reduced by eating 20 tart cherries.

  • The incidents of immune system diseases has increased over 200% in the last five years.

  • The flu pandemic of 1918 killed over 20 million people.

  • Each year in America there are about 300,000 deaths that can be attributed to obesity.

  • Every three days a human stomach gets a new lining.

  • The first owner of the Marlboro Company, Wayne McLaren, died of lung cancer.

  • Soldiers disease is a term for morphine addiction. The Civil War produced over 400,000 morphine addicts.

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by ticks.

  • A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet.

  • A study indicates that smokers are likely to die on average six and a half years earlier than non-smokers.

  • A person who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day will on average lose two teeth every ten years.

  • Lady Peseshet is known to be the world's first known female physician. She practiced during the time of the pyramids, which was the fourth dynasty.

  • The DNA of humans is closer to a rat than a cat.

  • Teenage suicide is the second cause of death in the state of Wisconsin.

  • Teenage cosmetic surgeries nearly doubled in the USA between 1996 and 1998.

  • Studies indicate that weightlifters working out in blue gyms can handle heavier weights.

  • Studies indicate that listening to music is good for digestion.

  • Studies indicate that epileptic patients that listen to Mozart's Piano Sonata can dramatically decrease their chance of a seizure.

  • Lack of sleep can affect your immune system and reduce your ability to fight infections.

  • It takes about three hours for food to be broken down in the human stomach.

  • Over 40 million Americans have chronic bad breath.

  • Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes.

  • Fourteen people die each day from asthma in the United States.

  • Every day the human stomach produces about 2 liters of hydrochloric acid.

  • Nearly half of all Americans suffer from symptoms of burnout.In humans, the epidermal layer of skin, which consists of many layers of skin regenerates every 27 days.

  • Native Americans used to use pumpkin seeds for medicine.

  • In ancient Egypt, doctors used jolts from the electric catfish to reduce the pain of arthritis.

  • The lining of the a person's stomach is replaced every 36 hours.

  • The purpose of tonsils is to destroy foreign substances that are swallowed or breathed in.

  • In the United States, poisoning is the fourth leading cause of death among children.

  • The risk of cardiovascular disease is twice as high in women that snore regularly compared to women who do not snore.

  • The stomach of an adult can hold 1.5 liters of material.

  • The stomach can break down goat's milk faster than the milk of a cow.

  • The smoke that is produced by a fire kills more people than a burn does because of carbon monoxide and other dangerous gases.

  • It has been medically been proven that laughter is an effective pain killer.

  • Influenza caused over twenty-one million deaths in 1918.

  • In a year, there are 60,000 trampoline injuries that occur in the U.S.

  • Even if you eat food standing on your head, the food will still end up in your stomach.

  • A person infected with the SARS virus, has a 95-98% chance of recovery.

  • 3000 children die every day in Africa because of malaria.

Pregnancy Facts

  • The world's first test tube twins are Stephen and Amanda Mays born June 5, 1981.

  • Some people drink the urine of pregnant women to build up their immune system.

  • The first known contraceptive was crocodile dung, used by Egyptians in 2000 B.C.

  • Every day, over 1,300 babies are born prematurely in the USA.

  • During pregnancy, the average woman's uterus expands up to five hundred times its normal size.

  • Changing a cat's litter box can be dangerous to pregnant women, as cat feces sometimes carry a parasite that can cause harm to the developing baby.

  • A pregnant woman's dental health can affect her unborn child.

  • May babies are on avearge 200 grams heavier than babies born in other months.

  • When a women is pregnant, her senses are all heightened.

  • Studies show that couples that smoke during the time of conception have a higher chance of having a girl compared to couples that do not smoke.

Sex Facts

  • There are approximately 100 million acts of sexual intercourse each day.

  • The sperm count of an average American male compared to thirty years ago is down thirty percent.
    An adult esophagus can range from 10 to 14 inches in length and is one inch in diameter.

  • Men sweat more than women. This is because women can better regulate the amount of water they lose.

  • The average amount of time spent kissing for a person in a lifetime is 20,160 minutes.

  • The average adult has approximately six pounds of skin.

  • Infants spend more time dreaming than adults do.

  • In one day, adult lungs move about 10,000 liters of air.

  • The condom made originally of linen was invented in the early 1500's. Casanova, the womanizer, used linen condoms.

  • Sex burns about 70-120 calories for a 130 pound woman, and 77 to 155 calories for a 170 pound man every hour.

  • Impotence is grounds for divorce in 26 U.S. states.

  • There are approximately 45 billion fat cells in an average adult.

  • Kissing can aid in reducing tooth decay. This is because the extra saliva helps in keeping the mouth clean.

  • During the female orgasm, endorphines are released, which are powerful painkillers. So headaches are in fact a bad excuse not to have sex.

  • During World War II, condoms were used to cover rifle barrels from being damaged by salt water as the soldiers swam to shore.

  • According to psychologists, the shoe and the foot are the most common sources of sexual fetishism in Western society.

  • A kiss for one minute can burn 26.

Other Human Body Facts

  • The Gastric Flu can cause projectile vomiting.

  • The Dutch people are known to be the tallest people in Europe.

  • Studies have shown that the scent of Rosemary can help in better mental performance and make individuals feel more alert.

  • Some brands of toothpaste contain glycerin or glycerol, which is also an ingredient in antifreeze.

  • Soaking beans for twelve hours in water before they are cooked can reduce flatulence caused by beans.

  • Scientists say that babies that are breastfed are more likely to be slimmer as adults than those that are not breastfed.

  • Scientists have determined that having guilty feelings may actually damage your immune system
    Research has indicated that approximately eleven minutes are cut off the life of an average male smoker from each cigarette smoked.

  • People have the tendency to chew the food on the side that they most often use their hand.

  • Over 600,000 people died as a result of the Spanish influenza epidemic.

  • Only one out of every three people wash their hands when leaving a public bathroom.

  • One ragweed plant can release as many as a million grains of pollen in one day.

  • One out of 20 people have an extra rib.

  • One average, men spend 60 hours a year shaving.

  • On average, falling asleep while driving results in 550 accidents per day in the United States.

  • On average, a person has two million sweat glands.

  • On average, Americans spend 33% of their life sleeping.

  • On average a person passes gas 14 times a day.

  • On average 1,668 gallons of water are used by each person in the United States daily.

  • Nerve impulses for muscle position travel at a speed of up to 390 feet per second.

  • Nerve cells can travel as fast as 120 meters per second.

  • Mummy powder was once thought to be a cure for all remedies. English men used to carry the powder with them in a tiny bag wherever they went.

  • Men in their early twenties shave an average of four times a week.

  • Medical research has found substances in mistletoe that can slow down tumor growth.

  • Medical reports show that about 18% of the population are prone to sleepwalking.

  • Manicuring the nails has been done by people for more than 4,000 years.

  • Left-handed people are better at sports that require good spatial judgment and fast reaction, compared to right-handed individuals.

  • Ironically, when doctors in Los Angeles, California went on strike in 1976, the daily number of deaths in the city dropped 18%.

  • In the United States, 8.5 million cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures were done in the year 2001.

  • People with darker skin will not wrinkle as fast as people with lighter skin.

  • People with allergies can lower allergy reactions by laughing.

  • People who meet their calcium need reduce their risk of developing kidney stones.

  • People that smoke have 10 times as many wrinkles as a person that does not smoke.

  • People still cut the cheese shortly after death.

  • People over the age of fifty will start to lose their dislike for foods that taste bitter.

  • People of Ancient China believed that swinging your arms could cure a headache.

  • The average weight of a newborn baby is 7 lbs. 6 oz. For a triplet baby it is 3 lbs. 12 oz.

  • The average person spends two weeks of their life kissing.

  • The average person falls asleep in about 12 to 14 minutes.

  • There are approximately one hundred million people in the United States that have a chronic illness.

  • There are approximately 60 muscles in the face.

  • There are 50% more males that are left handed compared to females.

  • There are 400 species of bacteria in the human colon.

  • There are 10 million bacteria at the place where you rest your hands at a desk.

  • In a lifetime, an average human produces 10,000 gallons of saliva.

  • In a lifetime, an average driver will release approximately 912 pints of wind inside a car.

  • In Canada, men are three times more likely than women to have seen a doctor in the last year.

  • In 1832, in Paisley, Scotland the first municipal water filtration works was opened.

  • Humans breathe in and out approximately one litre of air in ten seconds.

  • Girls have more tastebud than boys.

  • From the age of thirty, humans gradually begin to shrink in size.

  • Flu shots only work about 70% of the time.

  • Gases that build up in your large intestine cause flatulence. It usually takes about 30 to 45 minutes for these gases to pass through your system.

  • Fat is important for the development of children and normal growth.

  • Every day, the average person swallows about a quart of snot.

  • Eighty percent of 10 year old girls in the USA go on a diet.

  • Air is passed through the nose at a speed of 100 miles per hour when a person sneezes.

  • About twenty-five percent of the population sneeze when they are exposed to light.

  • A yawn usually lasts for approximately six seconds.

  • Children who are breast fed tend to have an IQ seven points higher than children who are not.

  • Children grow faster in the springtime than any other season during the year.

  • Eating chocolate three times a month helps people live longer as opposed to people who overeat chocolate or do not eat chocolate at all.

  • Constipation is caused when too much water is absorbed in the large intestine and poops become dry.

  • A ear trumpet was used before the hearing aid was invented by people who had difficulty hearing.

  • The average human dream lasts only 2 to 3 seconds.

  • The average person has at least seven dreams a night.

  • Bile produced by the liver is responsible for making your feces a brownish, green colour.

  • It takes more muscles to frown than it does to smile.

  • By the time you are 70 you will have easily drunk over 12,000 gallons of water.

  • A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for approximately sixty-nine years.

  • The average person walks the equivalent of twice around the world in a lifetime.

  • The average person laughs about 15 times a day.

  • The vocabulary of the average person consists of 5,000 to 6,000 words.

  • About 10% of the world's population is left-handed.


1. The Committee which has recomended one year mandatory rural service for medicos is headed by—
(A) C. Rangrajan
(B) V. Moily
(C) Y. K. Alagh
(D) Sambasiv Rao

2. Recently, the National Convention of Chairpersons and Intermediate Panchayats was held in New Delhi to mark the………anniversary of Panchayati Raj system.
(A) 13th
(B) 14th
(C) 15th
(D) 16th

3. INS Kesari has been commissioned at the naval base at Vishakhapatnam. It is the—
(A) Second indigenously built Landing Ship Tank (Large)
(B) Fifth indigenously built Landing Ship Tank (Large)
(C) Fourth indigenously built Landing Ship Tank
(D) Sixth indigenously built Landing Ship Tank (Large)

4. President Pratibha Patil recently visited Chile, Brazil and Mexico. During her trip, with which of the following countries did India sign an extradition treaty—
(A) Brazil
(B) Chile
(C) Mexico
(D) None of these

5. In its thirteenth flight PSLV-C9 successfully launched ten satellites with a total weight of 820 kg. Which of the following satellites launched by PSLV-C9 is not a nano satellite ?
(A) NLS-4
(B) NLS-5
(D) IMS-1

6. Apart from ISRO, three other agencies/institutions were also involved in the execution of PSLV-C9. Which of the following was not involved ?
(B) Antrix Corporation
(C) Cosmos International Germany
(D) University of Toronto, Canada

7. The Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline, slated to begin in 2009 was conceptualised first in—
(A) 1991
(B) 1989
(C) 1985
(D) 1993

8. In addition to Kolkata and Delhi, the Union Government plans to start Metro rail service in four more cities. Which of the following is not included in the plan ?
(A) Kochi
(B) Hyderabad
(C) Pune
(D) Chennai

9. Which of the following is not a member of the NATO ?
(A) Austria
(B) Poland
(C) Hungary
(D) Spain

10. Who became Britain’s first Asian woman Lord Mayor ?
(A) Rekha Rani
(B) Anjula Sood
(C) Reshma Shah
(D) Kavita Sahni

11. The newly elected President of Paragury is—
(A) Fernando De Silva
(B) Fernando Lugo
(C) Fernando Silvio
(D) Fernando Dominique

12. Silvio Berlusconi was recently elected to the post of Prime Ministership of Italy. He belongs to—
(A) Italian Nationalist Party
(B) The Patriotic Alliance
(C) People’s Party of Italy
(D) People of Freedom Party

13. PLA stands for—
(A) Party of Leninist Association
(B) People’s Liberation Army
(C) People for Liberal Alliance
(D) People for Left Alliance

14. The number of African countries which attended the recently concluded India-Africa Forum Summit is—
(A) 14
(B) 15
(C) 16
(D) 17

15. According to a recent survey which of India’s states has topped in rural electrification ?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Tamil Nadu
(C) Rajasthan
(D) Karnataka

16. Simran Kaur Mundi has been chosen—
(A) Miss India Earth 2008
(B) Miss India Universe 2008
(C) Miss India World 2008
(D) None of the above

17. Which one of the following won Pulitzer prize in Music category ?
(A) The Little Match Girl Passion
(B) Time and Materials
(C) The Years of Extermination
(D) The Eden’s Outcasts

18. The book ‘Superstar India : From Incredible to Unstoppable’ is written by—
(A) P. M. Nayyar
(B) Jhumpi Lahiri
(C) Shobha De
(D) None of these

19. The 2008 Edition of Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack–Crickets major annual reference work has named “The Leading Cricketer of the World for 2007”—
(A) Mc Grath
(B) Jacques Kallis
(C) Ricky Ponting
(D) Sachin Tendulkar

20. India ranks …………… in foreign exchange forex reserve.
(A) Third
(B) Second
(C) Fifth
(D) Fourth

21. Raghuram Rajan Committee is related to—
(A) Austerity in government expenditure
(B) Study of causes of rising prices
(C) Financial sector reforms
(D) Export-import balance

22. The International Monetary Fund has estimated India’s contribution to World Gross Domestic Product in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms for 2007 to—
(A) 4·6%
(B) 6·4%
(C) 7·1%
(D) 3·9%

23. According to data released by the Ministry of Finance, currently the per capita debt on each of the roughly 110 crore Indians stands at—
(A) Rs. 71502
(B) Rs. 7218
(C) Rs. 10550
(D) Rs. 6103

24. Which one of the three single cross improved hybrids of maize has not been developed and recommended for an All India level use by Chaudhry Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University ?
(A) HPM–6
(B) HM–8
(C) HM 10
(D) HQPM-7

25. US has decided to remove ………from its list of states sponsoring terrorism.
(A) Cuba
(B) Iraq
(C) North Korea
(D) Libya

26. In the year 2006-07 India received Foreign Direct Investment Worth—
(A) $ 25 billion
(B) $ 24·5 billion
(C) $ 26·25 billion
(D) 20·5 billion

27. For the first time, the T.V. Cameras and print cameramen were allowed to record proceedings of the Lok Adalats dispensing justice on—
(A) May 3, 2008
(B) May 5, 2008
(C) May 7, 2008
(D) May 4, 2008

28. As a part of the partial solution to the world’s energy crisis, the scientists of which of the following countries are building a nuclear fusion laboratory designed to recreate the temperatures and pressure of an exploding star ?
(A) U.K.
(B) U.S.A.
(C) Australia
(D) France

29. Recently, a fatal disease broke out in China infecting thousands of children and causing death of some of them. The disease was—
(A) Bird flu
(B) Filariasis
(C) Hand, mouth and foot disease
(D) Chicken pox

30. Two Indian doctors from Kolhapur have achieved a path breaking success in the research of—
(A) Genetics
(B) Stem cell
(C) New protein structure
(D) Habit pattern of different people

31. The tennis player who announced retirement recently is—
(A) Roger Federer
(B) Justine Henin
(C) Rafael Nadal
(D) Mahesh Bhupati

32. Entero virus 71 (EV 71) is responsible for—
(A) Japanese encephalitis
(B) The new form of bird flue
(C) Skin infection
(D) Hand-foot-mouth disease

33. According to a latest report, since 1990, India has cut its overall child mortality rate by—
(A) 34%
(B) 30%
(C) 32%
(D) 36%

34. India test fired Nuclear Capable Agni III on May 7, 2008 for—
(A) Fourth time
(B) Second time
(C) Third time
(D) Fifth time

35. Tenth century coins have been found from the city of—
(A) Guwahati
(B) Bareily
(C) Khandwa
(D) Ranchi

1. (D) 2. (C) 3. (C) 4. (A) 5. (D) 6. (A) 7. (B) 8. (C) 9. (A) 10. (B)
11. (B) 12. (D) 13. (B) 14. (A) 15. (C) 16. (B) 17. (A) 18. (C) 19. (B) 20. (D)
21. (C) 22. (A) 23. (B) 24. (A) 25. (C) 26. (B) 27. (A) 28. (A) 29. (C) 30. (B)
31. (B) 32. (D) 33. (A) 34. (C) 35. (C)

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Financial Action Task Force

Indian has become a full-fledged member of Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an inter-governmental body, responsible for setting global standards on anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT). Earlier, India had become Observer at FATF in the year 2006. Since then, India has been working towards full-fledged Membership of FATF. FATF membership is very important for India in its quest to become a major player in the international finance. It will help India to build the capacity to fight terrorism and trace terrorist money and to successfully investigate and prosecute money laundering and terrorist financing offences. India will benefit in securing a more transparent and stable financial system by ensuring that financial institutions are not vulnerable to infiltration or abuse by organized crime groups. The FATF process will also help us in coordination of AML/CFT efforts at the international level.

International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar has now launched Online Certification System (OCS) to speed up certification and homologation, related processes. Online Certification System will help
enhance transparency and efficiency in all the critical steps of certification system. Reduced use of paper and less requirement of physical presence of customer will be major USPs of this system. In line with best global practices, OCS would also mean that manufacturers around the world can access their data 24x7x365. All processes such as Type Approval, Conformity of Production (COP), Research & Development projects related to vehicles, engines, generator sets and automotive components are supported by the system. Multi-user and multi-disciplinary options will ensure uniform access to all employees within a particular knowledge domain. Appropriate checks and systems built into OCS will ensure strict control and confidentiality at all times. Another benefit of this system is that clients can track the status of their projects anytime using the system. A single window will give updates on specifications, timelines and costs. iCAT is India’s premier automotive test agency, equipped for full homologation of automobiles as well as components. iCAT’s strengths also lie in its core capabilities in R&D jointly with manufacturers and automotive developers, besides certification and research work, a lot of which is also funded by the Government of India’s Ministry of Heavy Industries. iCAT is one of the most advanced testing and certifying agencies in the world and has a strong IT backbone to support all its activities.

India’s Foreign Policy

Talleyrand, Foreign Minister of Napoleon and the Bourbons, is remembered as a shrewd foreign policy maker. He advocated pragmatism and Western nations have always pursued pragmatic foreign policies. He also advised eschewing excessive fervour while pronouncing foreign policy.

“The art of diplomacy, as that of water colours, has suffered much from the fascination which it exercises on the amateur”, said Harold Nicholson. This observation aptly applies to India’s diplomacy post-independence in 1947. Indians, somehow, have been extravagantly demonstrative, persistently delusive and high sounding while pronouncing their foreign policy.

The cold war era provided a near-perfect setting for spewing idealism at an ideologically divided world that was gracelessly recovering from the holocaust of a catastrophic world war. Those times also saw the end of colonialism and dawn of freedom for India. It gave a larger than life world stage to a Universalist Nehru who illumined it with the light of idealism and, like an angel, befittingly fluttered his wings over it ineffectually, while the Victors of World War Two—USA, UK, France, Russia and China—grabbed the world stage as leaders of peace!

According to Lord Carrington, “Foreign and defence policy essentially has to be about the obtaining and management of influence.” Foreign Policy demands astute sense of timing and shrewdly worked out strategies. Morality is certainly not a weakness of the major world powers. International diplomacy and relations have always been and remain amoral. In the prevailing international dispensation, bargaining, national interest and cool calculation determine relations among nations. India has yet to master the art of diplomatic negotiations and striking accurate equation with important world powers.

In 1947, India emerged as the largest democracy in the world. It, however, lacked the matching military and economic power. Since then it has fully participated in international politics, adhering to the letter and spirit of international treaties, conventions and protocols. India substituted word power for effective power to vie with the world powers. The tactic worked, at times poorly, when popular and maximum leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi were the Prime Ministers. Under their rule, India’s foreign policy was more for internal consumption than for impacting on the international order. They could afford to make errors and yet have their way. But costs were heavy for the nation. India had to bear dire consequences for some of their foreign policy errors of judgement, because they placed trust not in India’s friends, but in its antagonists.

High-sounding principles of Panchsheel led to a shocking betrayal by China from which India has yet to recover. “Jawaharlal, do you want Kashmir, or do you want to give it away?” Sardar Patel is known to have asked Nehru. Patel warned him in 1949 that the Chinese Communists would annex Tibet, the historical buffer between India and China. Nehru, however, cajoled China and went to the UN on Kashmir against Patel’s wish. Nehru’s “Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai” turned out to be a bitter shibboleth and Kashmir became the source and fount of terrorism and remains an unhealed, self-inflicted wound.

According to observers, Jawaharlal, the architect of India’s Non-alignment Policy, died of the Chinese treachery. Atal Behari Vajpayee, a man of sterling qualities yet imitated Nehru, and his diplomatic “bus to Lahore got hijacked to Kargil”. Earlier, in 1972, though a better strategist and negotiator “Indira Gandhi slipped up at Simla by trusting Zulfikar Bhutto’s word on Kashmir”.

Currently, India is militarily and economically a stronger country, though it has weaker and minimum leaders. But happily, and perhaps compulsively, our Foreign Policy under Dr Manmohan Singh’s rule is more pragmatic and in tune with the times and practices of the so-called international community.

The disintegration of the Warsaw Pact or Soviet Union in 1990 is regarded as the verge of a new era in international polity. USA emerged as the sole, unrivalled super-power with global reach. By force of its military presence in Central Asia, the Gulf region, the Afghan-Pak area, the Indian Ocean, South-East Asia, the China Sea and North-east Asia, it also became a next-door neighbour to India, China and Russia. Its interests and stakes in Asia are extensive and appear to be long-term, even permanent. It has obviously become an “Asian power”.

The Yankee stranglehold can be felt from Egypt to Pakistan in West Asia and from Philippines to Thailand in East Asia. Uncle Sam no longer attaches very great importance to its client States, such as Japan and Australia. On the other hand, it is seriously engaged in developing new political equations, and if need be, alliances with more and hitherto adversarial countries, including India. The US security interests and concerns fall together with India’s security arc at this time.

China’s rise as the Super-Asian military and economic power and India’s own increasing military and economic power are equally important developments of recent years. “The US, China and India, along with Japan and Russia, constitute the pentagonal power complex of the 21st century; all of them are acknowledged nuclear weapon powers.

Europe is no longer the focus of international power politics, as it was in the twentieth century. At the very onset of the twenty-first century, it has shifted to Asia and promises to stay there in the foreseeable future. Europe is comparatively free of conflict and threat to its peace. It is going through a period of political transition and is occupied with the challenges of its political unification and economic integration. The world’s peace and security now onwards depend on what kind of conditions will prevail in Asia. The World and Asian powers, at this juncture, feel compelled to work out new equations among themselves, to meet the challenge of emerging Asian realities.

The world has radically changed. Of necessity, the five World Powers and other nation-States are recasting their foreign policies to encounter new developments. The shift in Washington’s India policy is a part of this ongoing international process. It is a response to and recognition of the reality of a changed world. India, too, is called upon to break out of its musty mould and redesign it’s foreign, economic and security policies. It has to, like other big countries and nations, safeguard its interests internationally.

The USA has recognized India as a responsible nuclear weapon power. It is in USA’s long-term interests to see India as a strong and stabilizing power in its region. Therefore, it feels persuaded to assist India in enlarging its global role. Can or should India shun Washington’s overtures? During the last half-a-century of diplomatic experience, India is expected to have gained enough diplomatic maturity to understand that there are no “free lunches” in international relations. Reciprocity has to be on a “give-and-take” basis. It is no use saying that India abhors being a US-client State like Japan, Australia or Pakistan. International exigency is compelling India to decide its course of action and pay the price for the choice or choices it makes.

India’s changed stature does not permit it to blame others for its own diplomatic errors or justify them on moral grounds. It has itself to decide how far, fast or slow, it wishes to develop its relations with USA and other countries, and on what terms. China, only three decades ago, was a sworn enemy of USA, but now it is USA’s most dynamic trade partner. China, in fact, has become a world economic, and consequently a world military power, with the American support. Yet, China, by no means, is a client State of USA. Contrarily, it is a pain in the US neck. On the currency issue and revaluation of Yuan, it has not yielded to pressures and warnings from USA. India, too, is free and independent and big enough to look after itself. If it chooses to abjure the present opportunity, its inaction could prove too costly. Evading the foreign policy challenge will mean evading the future itself.

India must know and practice the maxim that there are no “permanent friends or foes” for reshaping its foreign policy competently. Ideological forces have disappeared from the international scene. Pragmatism is in the ascendant. India must recognize and evaluate its national needs and interests, because national interest alone is the all-encompassing coordinate that accurately structures a country’s foreign policy.

No country is self-sufficient in all respects. Interdependence and exchange of goods and services form the basis of abiding relationship among nation-States. India today is well placed to seek diplomatic accords and agreements for mutual benefits. It has to assess its needs and the extent to which foreign resources are required to satisfy them. For example, India needs enormous measure of nuclear energy and state of the art technologies for its industry and agriculture. India also needs speedier expansion of trade and investments, an infrastructure conforming to international standards and to modernize its military. Can a vast underdeveloped democracy find or raise internal resources to satisfy these needs?

If the answer is “No”, then, India has no alternative but to find friends and partners from amongst other nations to provide the necessary resources. At the same time, it must calculate coolly what it has to part with as a price. India has to remember that even the so-called international assistance from the Soviet or Western bloc in the cold war days had price tags. Assistance and cooperation were not free then and they will certainly not be free now. In fact, India today has sufficient bargaining power and should go into the international “diplomatic market” as a confident diplomatic bargainer.

India’s immediate goal in international power politics was to become an equal member of the nuclear suppliers group. That has now been achieved with the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) accepting India as a responsible nuclear power, of course, with help of USA. As a reciprocal gesture, it is absolutely in our national interest to oppose nuclear proliferation, especially within and near our regional boundaries, as it affects our security. Whether it is Pakistan or Iran, possession of nuclear weapons of mass destruction by them poses danger to us. Our opposition to Iran’s nuclear stand is dictated by our own national interest. It is not surrender to USA.

India's voting for the IAEA resolution, critical of Iran, has been interpreted in some quarters as kowtowing to USA. But former foreign secretary Shyam Saran’s forthright arguments favouring a new global non-proliferation order show that the vote wasn’t a one-off, ad hoc reflex—rather, it was backed by an articulated and coherent sense of India’s foreign policy priorities.

India’s proclivities are independent of both US and Iran. They put Indian interests first. India has objected to American double standards in upbraiding Iran, but indulging Pakistan whose nuclear advisor A.Q. Khan set up a nuclear Wal-Mart.
It must be noted here that western countries and major world powers, too, cannot escape the charge of proliferation. China has been extending nuclear know-how to North Korea and Pakistan. Israel’s nuclear capabilities have been gained with West’s connivance. Pakistan’s nuclear scientists have smuggled sensitive data from western countries. Moreover, India cannot be expected to fight for other countries’ interests at the cost of its own interests. Therefore, India has to continue to oppose Iran in IAEA voting, irrespective the hue and cry by the Left parties.

Sentimentality, romantic attachment to the Non-alignment will only blur our foreign policy focus. Has Iran done any extraordinary favour to India? Do other NAM countries consult India while exercising their international options? Should we consult Cuba or Venezuela before voting at the international forums? Do our actions at international meets need certification from any quarters to prove that our voting is or is not pro-American? A section of the media and the Left political parties appear to believe so. If this is their idea of India’s standing, role and place in global politics, then they have only a squinted view of India’s heightening status in world politics.

Non-Alignment Movement got launched in mid-twentieth century when most of the Afro-Asian countries were gaining their Independence and cold war was furiously raging. NAM’s assumed plank of neutrality between the Soviet and Capitalist blocs in the context of decolonization, anti-apartheid campaign and nuclear disarmament, placed the poor and week nations in positions of advantage. The two blocs vied with each other to enlist their support and offered inducements for it. They corrupted their leaders and weakened these Afro-Asian countries. NAM is now a relic and NAM-like neutrality or non-alignment a passé. The buoyant movement of the cold war times is now a conglomeration of diverse and in-cohesive nations with conflicting political and economic interests. India is the only country among its founding members to have gained in stature. Indonesia, Ghana and Egypt have declined; Yugoslavia has disintegrated and disappeared.

Yet, India has not abandoned NAM. It has been trying to revive the movement with a new agenda of economic and development cooperation. India’s leadership at the WTO has been strident as it successfully launched the G-22. NAM can adopt the G-22 agenda if it wishes to resurrect itself.

The foregoing observations on Indian Foreign Policy provide a perspective for understating India’s relations with major world powers, immediate region, a large number of other countries and the UN.

India’s greatest foreign policy frustration has been its unwholesome relations with its immediate neighbours. The major SAARC countries are culturally so close but politically so averse to neighbourly feelings with India. A ramification of the US presence in Afghanistan and Iraq is its closer watch on Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. All these countries have terrorists of various hues operating against India, with the State connivance and even State backing. Major western powers that were callously indifferent, after 9/11 Terrorist Attack on USA have become alive to the terrorist threat emanating from these countries. These countries are infested with Osama or Maoist (link between the two is more than suspected) elements and bases. The entire western world is in a state of scare of the terrorist threat, especially the Islamic terrorism. They also know that Pakistan and Bangladesh are harbouring dangerous terrorists. Uncle Sam’s overseeing these countries is a minor relief to India, as it is no longer alone while countering the nefarious terrorist designs.

India has been tolerant and accommodative toward its immediate neighbours, keeping them in productive engagement.

Relations with ASEAN and Singapore are the cornerstones of our “Look East” policy. “India-ASEAN Partnership for Peace, Progress, and Shared Prosperity” lays out a short to medium term road map of India-ASEAN cooperation in various sectors, such as economic, science and technology, information and communication technology, agriculture, health, pharmaceuticals and people to people contacts. India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreements are a continuing process.

Russia remains India’s biggest supplier of defence equipment and has given assurance on the supply of spares and made new offers on equipment. India, too, is supporting Russia in its accession to the WTO and its being treated as a market economy in anti-dumping investigations.

Lastly, we must remember that “in the world beyond parliaments, the press and think tanks, ideologies are being jettisoned to survive. Only the fittest will act internationally and manage change”. Will India change and choose a foreign policy befitting the challenge of times? Nation States are interdependent and foreign policy is now a central part of a nation’s political programme. War and Terrorism are everybody’s nightmare.